The Coral Triangle Initiative for Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF)Southeast Asia

Background 1

CTI-CFF is a multilateral partnership founded on the commitment of the six Coral Triangle countries (CT6): Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Timor-Leste, and the Solomon Islands; to safeguard coastal and marine resources and communities.

Globally, the Coral Triangle is considered one of the most important and diverse ecosystems:

  • It is an epicentre of marine biodiversity, with over 500 species of reef-building corals and 3,000 species of fish.
  • 120 million people are directly dependent upon marine resources for livelihoods and food security.
  • The coral reefs support a USD 12 billion a year tourism industry.
  • Its tuna spawning and nursery grounds support a multi-billion dollar tuna fishery industry.
  • Its reef systems and mangrove forests protect communities from storms, reducing damage and future reconstruction costs.

However, climate change will dramatically affect rivers, estuaries, mangrove forests, coral reefs, fisheries, coastal livelihoods, and coastal infrastructure through ocean acidification, increasing temperatures, sea level rise and more intense cyclones and storms. In 2009, the CT6 committed to implementing a Regional Plan of Action whose fourth goal – “Climate Change Adaptation Measures Achieved” - was considered particularly urgent. Hence, in 2010, the Region-wide Early Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (REAP-CCA) was developed identifying immediate actions to be taken across the Coral Triangle to build coastal community resilience to climate change. It is a major step toward implementing climate change adaptation under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Relationship to CSA

REAP-CCA will contribute to sustainable production and food security and to adaptation through the achievement of its two objectives, namely (i) maintaining marine and coastal ecosystem structures, functions, and services critical to livelihoods and food security of coastal communities and (ii) supporting diversification strategies that build the resilience of coastal communities to climate change. While reduced emissions are not currently a major objective, improved mangrove forest management will result in increased carbon sequestration. Similarly, REAP-CCA does not aim to increase but rather sustain productivity.

Impacts and lessons learned

100+ policies, laws and agreements supporting improved ecosystem management have been proposed or adopted plus 8 specific laws or policies addressing climate change. An online Climate Change Adaptation Marketplace will link funders of climate change adaptation with ready-to-go projects on the ground. Over 1 million hectares of marine protected areas and an additional 10 million hectares of coastal areas are already under improved management (Read 2014). 2


  • 1

    CTI. 2011. Region-wide Early Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation for the Near-shore Marine and Coastal Environment (REAP-CCA). Jakarta, Indonesia: CTI Interim Regional Secretariat. The Coral Triangle encompasses almost six million square kilometers of ocean and coastal waters surrounding Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste (Figure 1). It is considered the global epicenter of marine biodiversity—home to over 500 species of reefbuilding corals and 3,000 species of fish. The cumulative impacts of unplanned coastal development, over-fishing, habitat degradation, and climate change threaten the health and welfare, food security, and livelihoods of over 120 million people that live in coastal zone.
  • 2

    Read T. 2014. Stewarding biodiversity and food security in the Coral Triangle: Achievement, challenges and lessons learned. Jakarta, Indonesia: CTI Interim Regional Secretariat. The management team of the US Agency for International Development (USAID)- supported Coral Triangle Support Partnership (CTSP) commissioned this report to take a qualitative look at the achievements, challenges, and lessons learned from investment in CTSP. CTSP is part of a broader USAID investment supporting the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF), a six-nation effort to sustain vital marine and coastal resources in the Coral Triangle located in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

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CCAFS Climate-Smart Agriculture 101

The basics

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrative approach to address these interlinked challenges of food security and climate change, that explicitly aims for three objectives:

A. Sustainably increasing agricultural productivity, to support equitable increases in farm incomes, food security and development;

B. Adapting and building resilience of agricultural and food security systems to climate change at multiple levels; and

C. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture (including crops, livestock and fisheries).

Entry points

Agriculture affects and is affected by climate change in a wide range of ways and there are numerous entry points for initiating CSA programmes or enhancing existing activities. Productivity, mitigation and adaptation actions can take place at different technological, organizational, institutional and political levels. To help you navigate these myriad entry points we have grouped them under three Thematic Areas: (i) CSA practices, (ii) CSA systems approaches, and (iii) Enabling environments for CSA. Each entry point is then described and analysed in terms of productivity, adoption and mitigation potential and is illustrated with cases studies, references and internet links for further information.

Develop a CSA plan

Planning for, implementing and monitoring CSA projects and programmes evolves around issues of understanding the context including identification of major problems/barriers and opportunities related to the focus of the programme; developing and prioritizing solutions and designing plans; implementation; and monitoring and evaluation. Most major development agencies have their own framework for project and programme formulation and management but CCAFS has developed a specific approach for planning, implementing and assessing CSA projects and programme called CSA plan. CSA plan was developed to provide a guide for operationalizing CSA planning, implementation and monitoring at scale. CSA plan consist of four major components: (1) Situation analysis; (2) Targeting and prioritizing; (3) Program support; and (4) Monitoring. evaluation and learning.


To meet the objectives of CSA, such as agricultural development, food security and climate change adaptation and mitigation, a number of potential funding sources are available. For instance, climate finance sources may be used to leverage agriculture finance and mainstream climate change into agricultural investments. This section offers an overview of potential sources of funding for activities in climate-smart agriculture (CSA) at national, regional and international levels and for a number of different potential ‘clients’ including governments, civil society, development organizations and others. Additionally, it includes options to search among a range of funding opportunities according to CSA focus area, sector and financing instrument.

Resource library

CSA Guide provides a short and concise introduction and overview of the multifaceted aspects of climate-smart agriculture. At the same time it offers links to references and key resources that allows for further investigations and understanding of specific topics of interest. In the resource library we have gathered all the references, key resources, terms and questions in one place for a quick overview and easy access that can be used as a part of or independently of the other sections of the website. The resource library is divided into six sections; (1) References – list all publications, links and blogs referred to on the website; (2) Tools – list all the CSA tools presented on the website; (3) Key terms – explains the most important and frequently used terms related to CSA; (4) Frequently asked questions (FAQ) – provides a rapid overview of the most common questions asked on climate-smart agriculture; (5) About – where you can find out more about the purpose and structure of, as well as on the organizations and authors behind the website; (6) Contact.

Case studies

Local case studies

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