Impact of climate change on agriculture in the Philippines differ significantly across the country due to its climatic and ecological diversity (Thomas et al. 2015). 1 Nevertheless, climate change is considered a potential threat to national agricultural productivity and the country's overall economy (Rosegrant et al. 2015). 2 In 2009, the impacts of climate change were already presenting major challenges to the country’s effort to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Because of this, the MDG Achievement Fund of the United Nations, with financial support from the Government of Spain, initiated a program from 2009 to 2012 to support institutions in the Philippines to adapt to climate change. The joint programme's goal was to improve the country's capacity to plan and implement projects to mitigate the impact of climate change, with a focus on the disaster-prone eastern seaboard. Main initiatives included: i) Mainstreaming climate risk reduction into key national and local development, planning and regulatory processes; ii) Enhancing capacities of key national agencies, 43 local governments, academe and communities to undertake climate resilient development; and iii) testing six integrated adaptation approaches with the potential to be scaled-up.
Main achievements include the integration of climate change into the Philippine Development Plan, in which 'environment and climate change' was identified as one of the five priority areas for budgeting. In addition, the programme worked with partners to mainstream climate change concerns in sectoral plans, including mentoring and coaching of local officials in the provinces on conducting vulnerability assessments. Some 70 climate change adaptation projects were established to take advantage of agricultural adaptation options. Pilot testing of an early warning surveillance system was completed in two areas.
Relationship to CSA
Around 840 farmers have benefitted from the financing scheme which was distributed through a local co-operative, a rural bank, and municipal governments. Beneficiaries reported income increases from their initial harvests, while taking climate change into consideration in their activities. A Weather Index-Based Insurance (WIBI) System was also piloted in the area, which paid out indemnities to 327 farmers. In Benguet and Ifugao, 25 climate change adaptation options were introduced for upland farming in 97 sites. Most of the participating farmers reported positive effects from their production of alternative cash crops and their investments in small-scale infrastructure.
Impacts and lessons learned
The final evaluation report recommended that the climate change adaptation options and schemes, particularly in the agricultural sector, should be aggressively promoted and targeted for replication at a larger scale (Beasca 2012). 3
- Programme homepage - Strengthening the Philippines’ Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change: http://www.mdgfund.org/node/620
Thomas T, Pradesha A, Perez N. 2015. Agricultural growth and climate resilience in the Philippines: Subnational impacts of selected investment strategies and policies. Policy Note 2. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/129543 Being a nation of many islands spanning a considerable range of latitudes, the Philippines is noted for its climatic and ecological diversity. Significant climate differences exist, not least due to the country’s extensive coastal exposure and mountainous areas. For these reasons, the impacts of climate change on agriculture are likely to differ significantly across the country.
Rosegrant MW, Perez N, Pradesha A, Thomas TS. 2015. The Economywide Impact of Climate Change on Philippine Agriculture. Project Policy Note 1. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/129544 It has been widely shown for most countries that high productivity growth in the agricultural sector is a key driver of structural transformation to promote long-term economic growth. Historically, low agricultural productivity growth has hindered economic growth and employment creation in the Philippines, where agriculture—which accounts for one-third of employment—remains a key sector. Climate change has the potential to disrupt crop productivity, and in turn affect domestic agricultural production, consumption, and food security. Moreover, the global impact of climate change could stimulate changes in international and national commodity prices that ultimately have negative effects on both Philippine agriculture and the country’s overall economy.
Beasca J. 2012. Final Evaluation: Strengthening the Philippines’ Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change. New York, NY: MDG Achievement Fund.http://www.mdgfund.org/sites/default/files/Philippines%20-%20Environment%20-%20Final%20Evaluation%20Report.pdf This document provides a final evaluation of the Philippines MDG Achievement Fund programme titled Strengthening the Philippines' Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change. The evaluation determined that significant outputs were achieved by the JP, and that there were immediate effects from these outputs. In the five demonstration sites covered by the JP, the evaluation also found most output commitments to have already been delivered. Aside from these, positive immediate effects were reported by beneficiaries. Aside from these finished outputs, the evaluation also reported that several other outputs are still in progress because of complexities in the JP’s Results Structure, the manner of its delivery, the type of the output itself, and governance processes that have to be followed. However, the evaluation determined that these remaining outputs will be accomplished within the immediate period.