Strengthening the Philippines' Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate ChangePhilippines


Impact of climate change on agriculture in the Philippines differ significantly across the country due to its climatic and ecological diversity (Thomas et al. 2015). 1 Nevertheless, climate change is considered a potential threat to national agricultural productivity and the country's overall economy (Rosegrant et al. 2015). 2 In 2009, the impacts of climate change were already presenting major challenges to the country’s effort to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Because of this, the MDG Achievement Fund of the United Nations, with financial support from the Government of Spain, initiated a program from 2009 to 2012 to support institutions in the Philippines to adapt to climate change. The joint programme's goal was to improve the country's capacity to plan and implement projects to mitigate the impact of climate change, with a focus on the disaster-prone eastern seaboard. Main initiatives included: i) Mainstreaming climate risk reduction into key national and local development, planning and regulatory processes; ii) Enhancing capacities of key national agencies, 43 local governments, academe and communities to undertake climate resilient development; and iii) testing six integrated adaptation approaches with the potential to be scaled-up.

Main achievements include the integration of climate change into the Philippine Development Plan, in which 'environment and climate change' was identified as one of the five priority areas for budgeting. In addition, the programme worked with partners to mainstream climate change concerns in sectoral plans, including mentoring and coaching of local officials in the provinces on conducting vulnerability assessments. Some 70 climate change adaptation projects were established to take advantage of agricultural adaptation options. Pilot testing of an early warning surveillance system was completed in two areas.

Relationship to CSA

Around 840 farmers have benefitted from the financing scheme which was distributed through a local co-operative, a rural bank, and municipal governments. Beneficiaries reported income increases from their initial harvests, while taking climate change into consideration in their activities. A Weather Index-Based Insurance (WIBI) System was also piloted in the area, which paid out indemnities to 327 farmers. In Benguet and Ifugao, 25 climate change adaptation options were introduced for upland farming in 97 sites. Most of the participating farmers reported positive effects from their production of alternative cash crops and their investments in small-scale infrastructure.

Impacts and lessons learned

The final evaluation report recommended that the climate change adaptation options and schemes, particularly in the agricultural sector, should be aggressively promoted and targeted for replication at a larger scale (Beasca 2012). 3



  • 1

    Thomas T, Pradesha A, Perez N. 2015. Agricultural growth and climate resilience in the Philippines: Subnational impacts of selected investment strategies and policies. Policy Note 2. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Being a nation of many islands spanning a considerable range of latitudes, the Philippines is noted for its climatic and ecological diversity. Significant climate differences exist, not least due to the country’s extensive coastal exposure and mountainous areas. For these reasons, the impacts of climate change on agriculture are likely to differ significantly across the country.
  • 2

    Rosegrant MW, Perez N, Pradesha A, Thomas TS. 2015. The Economywide Impact of Climate Change on Philippine Agriculture. Project Policy Note 1. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). It has been widely shown for most countries that high productivity growth in the agricultural sector is a key driver of structural transformation to promote long-term economic growth. Historically, low agricultural productivity growth has hindered economic growth and employment creation in the Philippines, where agriculture—which accounts for one-third of employment—remains a key sector. Climate change has the potential to disrupt crop productivity, and in turn affect domestic agricultural production, consumption, and food security. Moreover, the global impact of climate change could stimulate changes in international and national commodity prices that ultimately have negative effects on both Philippine agriculture and the country’s overall economy.
  • 3

    Beasca J. 2012. Final Evaluation: Strengthening the Philippines’ Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change. New York, NY: MDG Achievement Fund. This document provides a final evaluation of the Philippines MDG Achievement Fund programme titled Strengthening the Philippines' Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change. The evaluation determined that significant outputs were achieved by the JP, and that there were immediate effects from these outputs. In the five demonstration sites covered by the JP, the evaluation also found most output commitments to have already been delivered. Aside from these, positive immediate effects were reported by beneficiaries. Aside from these finished outputs, the evaluation also reported that several other outputs are still in progress because of complexities in the JP’s Results Structure, the manner of its delivery, the type of the output itself, and governance processes that have to be followed. However, the evaluation determined that these remaining outputs will be accomplished within the immediate period.

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CCAFS Climate-Smart Agriculture 101

The basics

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrative approach to address these interlinked challenges of food security and climate change, that explicitly aims for three objectives:

A. Sustainably increasing agricultural productivity, to support equitable increases in farm incomes, food security and development;

B. Adapting and building resilience of agricultural and food security systems to climate change at multiple levels; and

C. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture (including crops, livestock and fisheries).

Entry points

Agriculture affects and is affected by climate change in a wide range of ways and there are numerous entry points for initiating CSA programmes or enhancing existing activities. Productivity, mitigation and adaptation actions can take place at different technological, organizational, institutional and political levels. To help you navigate these myriad entry points we have grouped them under three Thematic Areas: (i) CSA practices, (ii) CSA systems approaches, and (iii) Enabling environments for CSA. Each entry point is then described and analysed in terms of productivity, adoption and mitigation potential and is illustrated with cases studies, references and internet links for further information.

Develop a CSA plan

Planning for, implementing and monitoring CSA projects and programmes evolves around issues of understanding the context including identification of major problems/barriers and opportunities related to the focus of the programme; developing and prioritizing solutions and designing plans; implementation; and monitoring and evaluation. Most major development agencies have their own framework for project and programme formulation and management but CCAFS has developed a specific approach for planning, implementing and assessing CSA projects and programme called CSA plan. CSA plan was developed to provide a guide for operationalizing CSA planning, implementation and monitoring at scale. CSA plan consist of four major components: (1) Situation analysis; (2) Targeting and prioritizing; (3) Program support; and (4) Monitoring. evaluation and learning.


To meet the objectives of CSA, such as agricultural development, food security and climate change adaptation and mitigation, a number of potential funding sources are available. For instance, climate finance sources may be used to leverage agriculture finance and mainstream climate change into agricultural investments. This section offers an overview of potential sources of funding for activities in climate-smart agriculture (CSA) at national, regional and international levels and for a number of different potential ‘clients’ including governments, civil society, development organizations and others. Additionally, it includes options to search among a range of funding opportunities according to CSA focus area, sector and financing instrument.

Resource library

CSA Guide provides a short and concise introduction and overview of the multifaceted aspects of climate-smart agriculture. At the same time it offers links to references and key resources that allows for further investigations and understanding of specific topics of interest. In the resource library we have gathered all the references, key resources, terms and questions in one place for a quick overview and easy access that can be used as a part of or independently of the other sections of the website. The resource library is divided into six sections; (1) References – list all publications, links and blogs referred to on the website; (2) Tools – list all the CSA tools presented on the website; (3) Key terms – explains the most important and frequently used terms related to CSA; (4) Frequently asked questions (FAQ) – provides a rapid overview of the most common questions asked on climate-smart agriculture; (5) About – where you can find out more about the purpose and structure of, as well as on the organizations and authors behind the website; (6) Contact.

Case studies

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