This section introduces a range of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices and technologies within seven entry points for CSA; soil management, crop management, water management, livestock management, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture, and energy management. Practices are understood broadly as ways of doing things, for example, precision farming, tillage, and fertilization; these are all CSA practices. Technologies are new materials introduced into new or old practices, and might include new drought-tolerant varieties; a hardy breed of cattle, or a new slow-release fertilizer. Many of the entry points involve interventions at the farm level. However, in many instances, the management of natural resources will also need to be considered at the landscape level (see CSA system approaches). In the majority of cases, there will be an inevitable and desirable nexus among entry points.
Maintaining or improving soil health is essential for sustainable and productive agriculture. ‘Healthy’ soil will help to push sustainable agricultural productivity close to the limits set by soil type and climate. Key aspects of ‘healthy’ soil include the following:
- A comprehensive soil cover of vegetation.
- Soil carbon levels close to the limits set by soil type and climate.
- Minimal loss of soil nutrients from the soil through leaching.
- Zero or minimal rates of rainfall run-off and soil erosion.
- No accumulation of contaminants in the soil.
- Agriculture, which does not rely excessively on fossil energy through inorganic fertilizers.
In many regions of the world, soil health is severely threatened by human and livestock population increases. This has resulted in the intensification of soil cultivation in existing high potential areas, the expansion of farming into forests and marginal environments with fragile soils, and the over stocking and overgrazing of natural pastures. Combined with the constraints that small-scale farmers face with regard to the availability and cost of organic and inorganic nutrient inputs, these factors have resulted in the wide scale decline of soil health and, hence, productivity in those regions.
Contribution to CSA
Improved soil management aims to enhance soil health and contributes to CSA from several important perspectives:
- Productivity: All interventions that improve soil fertility, soil water availability and reduce the loss of nutrient-rich topsoil through erosion, will straightforwardly improve productivity.
- Adaptation: In many parts of the world, intense rainfall events are already a common occurrence and result in a high risk of rainfall run-off and soil erosion, especially on sloping land. Climate change projections suggest that the frequency and severity of such events are very likely to increase. There is a wide range of soil management interventions, which help reduce the risk of run-off and soil erosion, ranging from field or farm level interventions such as contour ploughing or contour tillage with tied ridges, micro-catchments and surface mulching, to landscape level approaches such as land terracing, contour stone bunds or reforestation.
- Mitigation: Soil management can help mitigate climate change as well through a range of interventions (Smith et al. 2007). 1 Soils are an important below ground ‘sink’ for carbon sequestration, and soil management interventions can help to harness this characteristic. For example, the organic matter additions recommended in Conservation Agriculture (Richards et al. 2014, 2 and see case study below), the inclusion of trees in crop fields, and the improved grazing management of natural pastures are all practices that help to increase the sequestration of carbon. The emission of the greenhouse gas (GHG) nitrous oxide from inorganic fertilizer use can also be reduced through integrated approaches to the management of nitrogen fertilizer. For example, Integrated Soil Fertility Management (Fairhurst 2012; 3 Roobroeck et al. 2015. 4 See also case study below.) advocates reduced amounts and more strategically placed inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. Rice lowlands with submergence are known to maintain much higher soil C then lowlands which go through wetting and drying cycles used in rice-wheat cultivation or uplands with maize-wheat rotations (Ladha et al. 2011). 5
Bronick CJ, Lal R. 2005. Soil structure and management: A review. Geoderma 124:3-22.
This article provides a thorough technical explanation of the key role that soil structure plays in the functioning of soil, and in turn supporting animal and plant life, while providing potential for soil carbon sequestration. Furthermore, Bronick and Lal (2005) explore the environmental impacts of soil structure, including uncertainties relating to the impact of high CO2 on soil, and the contributions of enhancing soil organic carbon. Several management options are accounted for, which provide increases in primary plant production and carbon input into the soil, while avoiding carbon loss through decomposition and erosion. Key soil management options explored in this article include reduced or no-tillage, mulching and residue management, compost, and nutrient management. In addition, crop management practices such as the use of cover crops and agroforestry can provide aggregate carbon sequestration benefits.
FAO. 2013. Climate-Smart Agriculture: Sourcebook. Module 4: Soils and their management for Climate-smart agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pp. 105-138.
This module looks at soil management in the context of climate change. It begins with an overview of some of the principles of soil health and the way soils interact with the atmosphere and with terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Sustainable soil management options are presented as “win-win-win” strategies that sequester carbon in the soil, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and help intensify production, all while enhancing the natural resource base. The module also describes practices that contribute to climate change adaptation and mitigation, and build the resilience of agricultural ecosystems.
Corsi S, Friedrich T, Kassam A, Pisante M, de Moaraes Sà J. 2012. Soil organic carbon accumulation and greenhouse gas emission reductions from conservation agriculture: a literature review. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
This publication presents a meta-analysis of global scientific literature with the aim to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and Conservation Agriculture with respect to their effects on soil carbon pools. The study conducted by the Plant production and Protection Division in collaboration with experts from several universities attempts to reduce the existing uncertainty about the impact of soil management practices on soil carbon pools and on carbon budget.
Powlson DS, Gregory PJ, Whalley WR, Quinton JN, Hopkins DW, Whitmore AP, Hirsch PR, Goulding KWT. 2011. Soil management in relation to sustainable agriculture and ecosystem services. Food Policy 36:S72-S87.
Powlson et al. (2011) provides a useful review of soil management practices for sustainable agriculture and enhancing ecosystem services, emphasizing putting research into action through policies and practices. Specific benefits provided by soil, for both food production and wider social and ecosystem functions, are provided. However, tradeoffs exist between the functions of soil for agricultural production and providing ecosystem services. The article reviews relevant literature to highlight some of the main issues at play. The pros, cons and topics for research and action in soil management include: managing soil carbon, optimizing soil conditions for crop growth, nutrient management, optimizing soil biological processes, soil-root interactions, minimizing erosion, and the use of biochar. The article also considers social, economic and governance aspects, and argues that not all management practices will be applicable in all regions or scales; some may be more suited to prosperous farmers with access to infrastructure, while others may provide significant livelihood benefits for smallholders. Collaboration and effective communication between researchers in different fields, policy makers at different scales, and the practitioners themselves is seen as a challenge that needs to be overcome to address food security, and properly assess the environmental impacts of agriculture.
CCAFS Big Facts website
Direct agricultural emissions from soils:
Smith P et al. 2008. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363:789-813.http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2184 Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500–6000 Mt CO2-eq. yr−1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500–1600, 2500–2700 and 4000–4300 Mt CO2-eq. yr−1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.−1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000 Mt CO2-eq. yr−1 at 0–20, 0–50 and 0–100 US$ t CO2-eq.−1, respectively.
Richards M, Sapkota T, Stirling C, Thierfelder C, Verhulst N, Friedrich T, Kienzle J. 2014. Conservation agriculture: Implementation guidance for policymakers and investors. Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice Brief. Copenhagen, Denmark: CCAFS.https://cgspace.cgiar.org/rest/bitstreams/34456/retrieve Conservation agriculture (CA) can increase resilience to climate change and has the potential to contribute to climate change mitigation. The benefits of CA are highly site- specific. Innovative approaches are needed to overcome barriers for uptake of CA by smallholders.
Fairhurst T, (Ed.). 2012. Handbook for Integrated Soil Fertility Management. Pondicherry, India: Africa Soil Health Consortium.http://www.tropcropconsult.com/downloads_files/Fairhurst2012.pdf This book is meant for training of extension workers in soil fertility management techniques in SSA and for workers involved in rural development that would like to learn more about the principles and practices of ISFM. This handbook is also a useful primer on ISFM for education organizations such as universities and technical colleges, organizations involved in the development of policy on agriculture and rural development that need reference materials on ISFM techniques, and other government and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) seeking to implement ISFM.
Roobroeck D, van Asten P, Jama B, Harawa R, Vanlauwe B. 2015. Integrated Soil Fertility Management: Contributions of framework and practices to climate-smart agriculture. Copenhagen, Denmark: CCAFS.https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/69018/CCAFSpbSoil.pdf?sequence=6&isAllowed=y Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is a set of practices related to cropping, fertilizers, organic resources and other amendments on smallholder farms to increase production and input use efficiency. ISFM delivers productivity gains, increased resilience, and mitigation benefits. ISFM benefits food security and incomes enhances yield stability in rainfed systems, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions from soils and fertilizers making it of value to climate-smart agriculture.
Ladha JK, Reddy CK, Padre AT, Kessel CV. 2011. Role of Nitrogen Fertilization in Sustaining Organic Matter in Cultivated Soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 40, 1756-1766.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22031558
Soil organic matter (SOM) is essential for sustaining food production and maintaining ecosystem services and is a vital resource base for storing C and N. The impact of long-term use of synthetic fertilizer N on SOM, however, has been questioned recently. Here we tested the hypothesis that long-term application of N results in a decrease in SOM. We used data from 135 studies of 114 long-term experiments located at 100 sites throughout the world over time scales of decades under a range of land-management and climate regimes to quantify changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil organic nitrogen (SON). Published data of a total of 917 and 580 observations for SOC and SON, respectively, from control (unfertilized or zero N) and N-fertilized treatments (synthetic, organic, and combination) were analyzed using the SAS mixed model and by meta-analysis. Results demonstrate declines of 7 to 16% in SOC and 7 to 11% in SON with no N amendments. In soils receiving synthetic fertilizer N, the rate of SOM loss decreased. The time-fertilizer response ratio, which is based on changes in the paired comparisons, showed average increases of 8 and 12% for SOC and SON, respectively, following the application of synthetic fertilizer N. Addition of organic matter (i.e., manure) increased SOM, on average, by 37%. When cropping systems fluctuated between flooding and drying, SOM decreased more than in continuous dryland or flooded systems. Flooded rice ( L.) soils show net accumulations of SOC and SON. This work shows a general decline in SOM for all long-term sites, with and without synthetic fertilizer N. However, our analysis also demonstrates that in addition to its role in improving crop productivity, synthetic fertilizer N significantly reduces the rate at which SOM is declining in agricultural soils, worldwide.
Landolt M. 2011. Stone lines against desertification. Rural 21, January 2011.http://www.rural21.com/fileadmin/_migrated/content_uploads/Stone_lines_against_desertification_01.pdf This brief provides farmer information and success stories on the practice of using stole contour lines to improve rainwater use and slow erosion in Burkina Faso.
Barry B, Olaleye AO, Zougmore R, Fatondji D. 2008. Rainwater harvesting technologies in the Sahelian zone of West Africa and the potential for outscaling. IWMI Working Paper 126. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute.http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/Working_Papers/working/WOR126.pdf In West Africa, especially in the Sahelian countries of Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, and Mauritania, erratic rainfall sequences within and between years has often led to a high uncertainty in rainfed crop production. Over the past three decades, severe food shortages attributed to drought have been frequently reported in several Sahelian countries, most of which are amongst the least developed of the world. The long dry periods affecting the majority of the arid and semi-arid countries in West Africa are associated with famine, displacement of populations, and loss of previously fertile land. One of the challenges of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to reduce poverty and hunger and ensure successful interventions are reported in rainfed agriculture in West Africa, which are transforming the livelihoods of many resource poor smallholder farmers. Innovative and indigenous ways to achieve improved crop yields through integrated land and water management such as rainwater harvesting and soil water conservation have been successfully tested and, in some cases, adopted in West Africa. This paper highlights the successful interventions of improved indigenous rainwater harvesting/soil water conservation technologies such as Zaï or tassa, stone rows and halfmoon in the Sahelian zones of West Africa over the past 10 years, and their contributions to enhancing food security and alleviating poverty. The potential for adoption of these technologies at the farm level and their outscaling to areas with similar agroecological zones are also discussed.
Roose E, Kabore V, Guenat C. 1999. Zai Practice: A West African Traditional Rehabilitation System for Semiarid Degraded Lands, a Case Study in Burkina Faso. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 13(4):343-355.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/089030699263230 For degraded soil productivity, restoration, and green cover rehabilitation, it is essential to study and improve traditional farming systems, especially in the Sudano - Sahelian areas, where technical possibilities are limited. One example is the Zai practice, a very complex soil restoration system using organic matter localization, termites to bore channels in the crusted soils, runoff capture in microwatersheds, and seed hole cropping of sorghum or millet on sandy soils. Investigation on many fields of the Mossi Plateau (northern part of Burkina Faso) has shown a range of variations of the Zai system in relation to soil texture, availability of labor and organic matter, and relevance for rehabilitation of these degraded crusted soils. We describe a complex soil restoration system revealed during our 2 years of inquiries and experiments testing this system in two types of soil (a shallow, poor alfisol and a deep, brown tropical inceptisol). Biomass production of sorghum is reported in relation to various potential improvements of the Zai systems and also the wild grass and shrub species that appeared after 2-7 years of a Zai cropping system on a bare, crusted, degraded soil surface. Experimental improvements of this Za system on two soils confirm the possibility not only to increase the production of cereal grains (from 150 to 1700 kg ha-1) and straw (from 500 to 5300 kg ha-1) on deep, brown soils (eutropept), but also to reintroduce a large diversity of useful plants that may help during the fallow period and the process of degraded soil restoration. The concentration of runoff water, organic manure, and a complement of mineral nutrients in microwatersheds increased biomass production without significant change in soil properties after 2 years. This system may be useful not only to restore soil productivity but also for revegetation, e.g., 22 species of weeds and 13 species of forage shrubs included in dry dung manure (3 Mg ha-1 yr-1).
Sanginga N, Woomer PL, (Eds.). 2009. Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Africa: Principles, Practices and Developmental Process. Nairobi, Kenya: TSBF-CIAT.http://agrilinks.org/sites/default/files/resource/files/integrated_soil_fertility.pdf This book's purpose is not only to improve understanding of soil fertility management in Africa, but to do so in a proactive manner that serves as a call for action. This book describes the principles and practices of better managing soil fertility and sustaining crop productivity in Africa, but also the developmental processes necessary to propel ISFM into broader developmental and environmental agendas. In this way, this book not only captures current scientific knowledge of soil fertility management for use by agricultural researchers and educators, but also serves as a crossover publication for application by policymakers, development specialists and rural project managers at a time when the continent must respond to challenges posed by food shortages and continuing degradation of its agricultural resources. It is hoped that this book will contribute to more effective and widespread application of ISFM approaches and technologies, resulting in more productive and sustainable agriculture, improving household and regional food security and increasing incomes of small-scale farmers.
Nyasimi M, Amwata D, Hove L, Kinyangi J, Wamukoya G. 2014. Evidence of Impact: Climate-Smart Agriculture in Africa. CCAFS Working Paper no. 86. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).https://cgspace.cgiar.org/rest/bitstreams/35815/retrieve The vulnerability of Africa’s agriculture to climate change is complex. It is shaped by biophysical, economic, socio-cultural, geographical, ecological, institutional, technological and governance processes that interact in intricate ways, and can together reduce farmers’ adaptive capacity. Women farmers with few resources are particularly vulnerable. This working paper highlights the array of adaptation strategies that exist across Africa’s diverse farming systems and climatic conditions. These strategies can provide the impetus for transforming Africa’s agriculture. The case studies show how farmers are already adapting to climate change, what kinds of investment and how much is needed, and what local and national leadership is necessary to increase adoption and scale up. Successful case studies are broadly defined as those that identify, test and implement climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices and institutions, counter the impacts of climate change and offer the highest returns on investments. These CSA practices offer the best chance of food security and many other benefits for the people of Africa in the long term.
FAO. 2009. Scaling-up Conservation Agriculture in Africa: Strategy and Approaches. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: The FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa.http://www.fao.org/ag/ca/doc/conservation.pdf This booklet aims at providing the basis for upscaling Conservation Agriculture by addressing the strategy and approaches to engage policy makers and other stakeholders (farmers, agro pastoralists and pastoralists, donors, researchers, extensions and the private sector) in the challenge to move beyond pilot and demonstration plots.
Ladha JK, Rao AN, Raman A, ..., Noor S. 2016. Agronomic improvements can make future cereal systems in South Asia far more productive and result in a lower environmental footprint. Global Change Biology 22, 1054-1074.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26527502
South Asian countries will have to double their food production by 2050 while using resources more efficiently and minimizing environmental problems. Transformative management approaches and technology solutions will be required in the major grain-producing areas that provide the basis for future food and nutrition security. This study was conducted in four locations representing major food production systems of densely populated regions of South Asia. Novel production-scale research platforms were established to assess and optimize three futuristic cropping systems and management scenarios (S2, S3, S4) in comparison with current management (S1). With best agronomic management practices (BMPs), including conservation agriculture (CA) and cropping system diversification, the productivity of rice- and wheat-based cropping systems of South Asia increased substantially, whereas the global warming potential intensity (GWPi) decreased. Positive economic returns and less use of water, labor, nitrogen, and fossil fuel energy per unit food produced were achieved. In comparison with S1, S4, in which BMPs, CA and crop diversification were implemented in the most integrated manner, achieved 54% higher grain energy yield with a 104% increase in economic returns, 35% lower total water input, and a 43% lower GWPi. Conservation agriculture practices were most suitable for intensifying as well as diversifying wheat-rice rotations, but less so for rice-rice systems. This finding also highlights the need for characterizing areas suitable for CA and subsequent technology targeting. A comprehensive baseline dataset generated in this study will allow the prediction of extending benefits to a larger scale.
World Bank. 2016a. Climate Change Knowledge Portal: for Development Practitioners and Policy Makers.http://sdwebx.worldbank.org/climateportal/ The Climate Change Knowledge Portal (CCKP) Beta is a central hub of information, data and reports about climate change around the world. Here you can query, map, compare, chart and summarize key climate and climate-related information.
Roose E, Duchaufour H, De Noni G. 2012. Lutte antiérosive, rehabilitation des sols tropicaux et protection contre les pluies exceptionnelles. Marseille, France: Institut de recherché pour le développement.http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/divers14-01/010055520.pdf
Crop production for food, fibre and animal feed is practised within a very diverse range of farming systems. Each is subject to widely differing socio-economic, climatic and soil conditions. For example, some are rain-fed while others are irrigated. Increasing attention is now being given to the wide range of crop production practices that can be considered as ‘climate-smart’ either from an adaptation perspective, or for their mitigation potential. These climate-smart opportunities can be found through a range of different entry points: from soil and water management to agroforestry practices. In this section, the focus will be on how ‘crop specific’ innovations can substantially contribute to climate-smart agriculture (CSA).
Contribution to CSA
- Productivity: Crop productivity can be increased through the breeding of higher yielding crop varieties, though crop and crop nutrient management, and through the choice of crop species that have higher yield potentials under given environmental conditions.
- Short-term adaptation through climate risk management: Some crop interventions can substantially reduce the risk of yield reduction or crop failure. For example, crops can be bred for greater drought tolerance and shorter-duration varieties can both be used for ‘terminal drought escape’ (see CIMMYT and IITA 2015, 15Case study 2 and Case study 3). Similarly, breeding for resistance to the pests and diseases that are triggered by weather events provides another important source of climate risk reduction. Plant breeding for drought, pest and disease resistance becomes more important since the risk of drought is projected to increase in many regions and the distribution and severity of pest and disease outbreaks will also change as climates change (FAO 2008). 16
- Longer-term adaptation through change: As the world continues to warm, longer-term adaptation will become necessary. This can be achieved through development and planting of heat-tolerant, drought-tolerant or salinity-tolerant crop varieties, or by switching to crops that have higher tolerance to temperatures and the greater risk of drought. For example, cereals like millets and sorghum are the hardiest crops for harsh, hot and dry environments (ICRISAT 2014). 17 Farmers who currently grow maize may have to switch to these alternative cereals in the future (ICRISAT 2015). 18 Another adaptation strategy is the substitution of potentially vulnerable annual crops with more hardy perennials (see Case study 1). Furthermore, in regions which are already marginal for crop production, farmers may well have to adapt more radically by abandoning cropping for livestock production (Jones and Thornton 2008). 19
- Mitigation: The mitigation potential of crop production largely stems from soil and water management, or the agroforestry system under which crops are grown (see entry points 1, 4 and 6). However, perennial crops are able to sequester greater amounts of carbon below ground than annual crops (Glover et al. 2007). 20
Rosegrant MW, Koo J, Cenacchi N, Ringler C, Robertson R, Fisher M, Cox C, Garrett K, Perez N, Sabbagh P. 2014. Food Security in a World of Natural Resource Scarcity: The Role of Agricultural Technologies. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
This book endeavors to respond to the challenge of growing food sustainably without degrading our natural resource base. The analysis makes use of modeling approaches that combine comprehensive process-based modeling of agricultural technologies with sophisticated global food demand, supply, and trade modeling. This approach assesses the yield and food impact through 2050 of a broad range of agricultural technologies under varying assumptions of climate change for the three key staple crops: maize, rice, and wheat. Geared toward policymakers in ministries of agriculture and national agricultural research institutes, as well as multilateral development banks and the private sector, the book provides guidance on various technology strategies and which to pursue as competition grows for land, water, and energy across productive sectors and even increasingly across borders. It can be also used as an important tool for targeting investment decisions today and going forward.
FAO. 2013. Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Module 6: Conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources for food and agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pp. 171-190.
This module describes the nature of genetic resources for food and agriculture and outlines why these resources are essential for climate-smart agriculture. After a brief description of the expected impacts of climate change on genetic resources for food and agriculture, the module highlights their role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Examples from around the world are used to demonstrate how the conservation and use of the rich genetic diversity of plants and animals both between and within species used for food and agriculture can benefit present and future generations.
FAO. 2013. Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Module 7: Climate-smart crop production system. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pp. 191-204.
The first part of this module outlines the impacts of climate change on crop production. The second part describes the sustainable crop production intensification (SCPI) paradigm and illustrates how sustainable agriculture is inherently “climate-smart.” In describing the underlying principles of SCPI, the module draws heavily on the FAO publication Save and Grow. Save and Grow — a rich source of information, case studies and technical references — was produced following an Expert Consultation held in 2010: it is a guide and toolkit of sustainable technologies and practices, but also explores the policies and institutional arrangements for the large-scale implementation of SCPI. The module also describes options for land managers and farmers to adapt, and contribute to the mitigation of climate change. Text boxes provide examples of sustainable crop production practices, techniques and approaches for climate change adaption and mitigation.
Snyder CS, Bruulsema TW, Jensen TL, Fixen PE. 2009. Review of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production systems and fertilizer management effects. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 133:247-266.
This article conducts a literature review of best practices for crop and fertilizer management, in terms of their potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. An overview of various agricultural greenhouse gas sources and sinks is provided as well. The investigated practices include different tillage systems, tile drainage, cropping systems, and the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers (including production and transportation). Proper management of fertilizers is key, in order to optimize yields while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions; this allows farmers to make the most of existing agricultural land, while reducing the need for conversion of further natural areas. Factors which influence the effectiveness of fertilizer use include their source, timing, rate, and placement. To meet the dual demand of food security and greenhouse gas mitigation, the article recommends ecologically intensive crop management, focused on enhancing nutrient use efficiency and yield gains. Using best management practices on high-yielding crops can contribute to mitigation through better soil carbon storage.
Lin BB. 2011. Resilience in agriculture through crop diversification: Adaptive management for environmental change. BioScience 61(3):183-193.
Lin (2011) proposes crop diversification as a cost-effective method for improving the resilience of agricultural systems. Climate change will have diverse impacts on agricultural production, including greater climate variability and shifting weather patterns, which will in turn have consequences in agricultural productivity due to changes in the nutrient cycling, and more frequent pest and disease outbreaks. Lin (2011) argues that increased biodiversity will increase the resilience of agroecosystems to these climate-induced challenges, while providing a more effective delivery of ecosystem services. Diversification can take shape in a variety of forms (e.g. using different varieties) across different scales (e.g. within crop, across landscapes), meaning that many different diversification solutions are available to farmers. Lin (2011) argues that practices such as utilizing heterogeneous varieties, can increase pest and disease resistance, while agroforestry and intercropping can buffer crops from large changes in temperature and precipitation. However, uptake of these practices has been slow due to policy incentives that incentivize mono-cropping. The article argues that economic benefits of diversification strategies must be pinpointed, and put into action by policy incentives and stakeholder-based participatory approaches that suit the needs of farmers.
Kole C. et al. 2015. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: progress and prospects. Front Plant Sci. 6:563.
Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives toward identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have proven helpful in enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB). In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB for improving climate change resilience in crops, which is likely to play an ever increasing role in the effort to ensure global food security.
Wassmann R, Jagadish SVK, Heuer S, G, Ismail, Redoña E, Serraj R, Singh RK, Howell A, Pathak H, Sumfleth K. 2009. Climate Change Affecting Rice Production: The Physiological and Agronomic Basis for Possible Adaptation Strategies. Advances in Agronomy 101: 59-122.
This review addresses possible adaptation strategies in rice production to abiotic stresses that will aggravate under climate change: heat (high temperature and humidity), drought, salinity, and submergence. Each stress is discussed regarding the current state of knowledge on damage mechanism for rice plants as well as possible developments in germplasm and crop management technologies to overcome production losses. Higher temperatures can adversely affect rice yields through two principal pathways, namely (i) high maximum temperatures that cause—in combination with high humidity—spikelet sterility and adversely affect grain quality and (ii) increased nighttime temperatures that may reduce assimilate accumulation. On the other hand, some rice cultivars are grown in extremely hot environments, so that the development of rice germplasm with improved heat resistance can capture an enormous genetic pool for this trait. Likewise, drought is a common phenomenon in many rice growing environments, and agriculture research has achieved considerable progress in terms of germplasm improvement and crop management (i.e., water saving techniques) to cope with the complexity of the drought syndrome. Rice is highly sensitive to salinity. Salinity often coincides with other stresses in rice production, namely drought in inland areas or submergence in coastal areas. Submergence tolerance of rice plants has substantially been improved by introgressing the Sub1 gene into popular rice cultivars in many Asian rice growing areas.
Wassmann R, Jagadish SVK, Sumfleth K, Pathak H, Howell G, Ismail A, Serraj R, Redoña E, Singh RK and Heuer S. 2009. Regional vulnerability of climate change impacts on Asian rice production and scope for adaptation. Advances in Agronomy 102: 91-133.
Rice is the principle staple crop of Asia and any deterioration of rice production systems through climate change would seriously impair food security in this continent. This review assesses spatial and temporal vulnerabilities of different rice production systems to climate change impacts in Asia. Initially, the review discusses the risks of increasing heat stress and maps the regions where current temperatures are already approaching critical levels during the susceptible stages of the rice plant, namely Pakistan/north India (Oct.), south India (April, Aug.), east India/Bangladesh (March-June), Myanmar/Thailand/Laos/Cambodia (March-June), Vietnam (April/Aug.), Philippines (April/June), Indonesia (Aug.) and China (July/Aug.). Possible adaptation options for heat stress are derived from regions where the rice crop is already exposed to very high temperatures including Iran and Australia. Drought stress is also expected to aggravate through climate change; a map superimposing the distribution of rainfed rice and precipitation anomalies in Asia highlights especially vulnerable areas in east India/Bangladesh and Myanmar/Thailand.
Paris TR, Manzanilla D, Tatlonghari G, Labios R, Cueno A, Villanueva D (2011) Guide to participatory varietal selection for submergence-tolerant rice. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute
Participatory varietal selection (PVS) is a simple way for breeders and agronomists to learn which varieties perform well on-station and on-farm and to obtain feedback from the potential end users in the early phases of the breeding cycle. It is a means for social scientists to identify the varieties that most men and women farmers prefer, including the reasons for their preference and constraints to adoption. Based on IRRI’s experience in collaboration with national agricultural research and extension system partners and farmers, PVS, which includes “researcher-managed” and “farmer-managed” trials, is an effective strategy for accelerating the dissemination of stress-tolerant varieties. PVS has also been instrumental in the fast release of stress-tolerant varieties through the formal varietal release system. This guide on PVS will complement the various training programs given by IRRI for plant breeders, agronomists, and extension workers engaged in rice varietal development and dissemination.
CCAFS Big Facts website
Crops and farming systems:
Adaptation of crops and farming systems:
Evidence of success for crops and farming systems:
CIMMYT, IITA. 2015. The Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa Initiative (DTMA).http://dtma.cimmyt.org/index.php This CIMMYT-IITA website covers the latest stories and developments concerning the Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa Initiative.
FAO. 2008. Climate related transboundary pests and diseases. Technical Background Document for the Expert Consultation held on 25 to 27 February 2008. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/3/a-ai785e.pdf The movement of plant pests, animal diseases and invasive alien aquatic organisms across physical and political boundaries threatens food security and creates a global public concern across all countries and all regions. Countries allocate large resources to limit the spread and control of transboundary pests and diseases1 such as avian influenza, foot-and-mouth disease and locust. They also adapt animal and plant health services and activities and cooperate regionally and globally for prevention, early warning and control.
ICRISAT. 2014. Millets and sorghum: Climate-smart grains for a warmer world. CGIAR Development Dialogues 2014. Montpellier, France: CGIARhttp://dialogues.cgiar.org/blog/millets-sorghum-climate-smart-grains-warmer-world/ This ICRISAT blog post explains how and why millets and sorghums can be a sustainable food source, capable of helping fight poverty and food insecurity.
ICRISAT. 2015. Go for sorghum, say climate smart Kenyan farmers. ICRISAT Happenings In-house Newsletter no. 1660. Telangana, India: ICRISAT.http://www.icrisat.org/newsroom/latest-news/happenings/1660/1660.pdf This ICRISAT news story gives an account of the benefits of sorghum for climate resilience and food security.
Jones PG, Thornton PK. 2008. Croppers to livestock keepers: livelihood transitions to 2050 in Africa due to climate change. Environmental Science and Policy 12(4):427-437.http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.08.006 The impacts of climate change are expected to be generally detrimental for agriculture in many parts of Africa. Overall, warming and drying may reduce crop yields by 10–20% to 2050, but there are places where losses are likely to be much more severe. Increasing frequencies of heat stress, drought and flooding events will result in yet further deleterious effects on crop and livestock productivity. There will be places in the coming decades where the livelihood strategies of rural people may need to change, to preserve food security and provide income-generating options. These are likely to include areas of Africa that are already marginal for crop production; as these become increasingly marginal, then livestock may provide an alternative to cropping. We carried out some analysis to identify areas in sub-Saharan Africa where such transitions might occur. For the currently cropped areas (which already include the highland areas where cropping intensity may increase in the future), we estimated probabilities of failed seasons for current climate conditions, and compared these with estimates obtained for future climate conditions in 2050, using downscaled climate model output for a higher and a lower greenhouse-gas emission scenario. Transition zones can be identified where the increased probabilities of failed seasons may induce shifts from cropping to increased dependence on livestock. These zones are characterised in terms of existing agricultural system, current livestock densities, and levels of poverty. The analysis provides further evidence that climate change impacts in the marginal cropping lands may be severe, where poverty rates are already high. Results also suggest that those likely to be more affected are already more poor, on average. We discuss the implications of these results in a research-for-development targeting context that is likely to see the poor disproportionately and negatively affected by climate change.
Glover JD, Cox CM, Reganold JP. 2007. Future Farming: A Return to the Roots? Scientific American August 2007:83-89.https://landinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Glover-et-al-2007-Sci-Am.pdf Modern agriculture’s intensive land use quashes natural biodiversity and ecosystems. Meanwhile the population will balloon to between eight billion and 10 billion in the coming decades, requiring that more acres be cultivated. Replacing single-season crops with perennials would create large root systems capable of preserving the soil and would allow cultivation in areas currently considered marginal. The challenge is monumental, but if plant scientists succeed, the achievement would rival humanity’s original domestication of food crops over the past 10 millennia—and be just as revolutionary.
FAO. 2013a. Climate-Smart Agriculture: Sourcebook. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3325e.pdf Between now and 2050, the world’s population will increase by one-third. Most of these additional 2 billion people will live in developing countries. At the same time, more people will be living in cities. If current income and consumption growth trends continue, FAO estimates that agricultural production will have to increase by 60 percent by 2050 to satisfy the expected demands for food and feed. Agriculture must therefore transform itself if it is to feed a growing global population and provide the basis for economic growth and poverty reduction. Climate change will make this task more difficult under a business-as-usual scenario, due to adverse impacts on agriculture, requiring spiralling adaptation and related costs.
Sipalla F, Cairns J. 2015. CIMMYT-CCAFS Scientists Identify Maize Varieties That Can Withstand Drought and High Temperatures in Zimbabwe. Nairobi, Kenya: CIMMYT.http://dtma.cimmyt.org/index.php/component/content/article/110-news-articles/176-cimmyt-ccafs-scientists-identify-maize-varieties-that-can-withstand-drought-and-high-temperatures-in-zimbabwe This news story covers how CIMMYT-IITA scientists have identified new maize varieties in Zimbabwe capable of resisting high temperatures and drought.
La Rovere R, Kostandini G, Abdoulaye T, Dixon J, Mwangi W, Guo Z, Banziger M. 2010. Potential impact of investments in drought tolerant maize in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: CIMMYT.https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=vJ3fZu2TZVIC&oi=fnd&pg=PR6&dq=La+Rovere+et+al.+(2010).+Potential+impact+of+investments+in+drought+tolerant+maize+in+Africa.+CIMMYT,+Addis+Ababa,+Ethiopia.+&ots=yDKamQpWdS&sig=q3xGq-5sfRNtU6ISkps64Z80YJA#v=onepage&q&f=false The study evaluates the potential impacts of the Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa (DTMA) project run by CIMMYT and the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in 13 countries of eastern, southern and West Africa: Angola, Benin, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe and Ghana. It describes cumulative economic and poverty-reduction benefits to farmers and consumers in those countries over 2007-16, from higher yields and from diminished season-to-season yield fluctuations, through the adoption by farmers of improved, drought tolerant maize varieties. At the most likely rates of adoption, based on several recent studies and expert advice, drought tolerant maize can generate US$ 0.53 billion from increased maize grain harvests and reduced risk over the study period, assuming conservative yield improvements—that is, a yield advantage over normal, improved maize of 3-20%, depending on the site and seasonal conditions. Assuming more optimistic yield gains—a range of 10-34% over non-drought tolerant improved maize—the economic benefit is nearly US$ 0.88 billion in project countries. Optimistic yields plus full replacement of current improved varieties with drought tolerant ones could help more than 4 million people to escape poverty and many millions more to improve their livelihoods. The most striking economic and poverty benefits will accrue in Nigeria, Kenya, and Malawi, based on the amounts of maize sown in those countries, the importance of maize in inhabitants’ diets and livelihoods, and their historical levels of adoption of improved maize. In comparison, the benefits will be more modest in Angola and Mozambique and moderate in Uganda and Mali. However, even if most DTMA project resources were allocated to the countries where the benefits are highest, the other countries would still benefit from the research spillovers that could be facilitated by crossborder seed market exchanges. Crucial components in this multi-disciplinary study included geographic information system data, data on the probability of failed crop seasons (PFS), yield data from breeders, projected maize adoption rates mainly from seed experts, and poverty data from socioeconomists. The drought tolerant varieties considered are the product of conventional breeding—that is, they are not transgenic. Follow-up research will address potential benefits from such factors as area expansion effects, increased cropping diversity (households can meet their maize requirements from a smaller portion of their land, freeing up space to sow other crops), and increased investment in fertilizer and other improvements, owing to reduced risk. Moreover, if as expected farmers who adopt drought tolerant maize continue to grow it beyond 2016, the returns on investments to this work will become even more significant.
ICRISAT. 2012. The Jewels of ICRISAT. Telangana, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).http://www.icrisat.org/jewels/The-Jewels-of-ICRISAT.pdf
The book takes up an idea suggested by our Governing Board to highlight the ‘jewels’ of ICRISAT – the 16 breakthroughs and innovations described in this publication. These stories revolve around and cut across our four research programs: resilient dryland systems; markets, institutions and policies; grain legumes; and dryland cereals. This publication aims primarily to help the reader understand ICRISAT’s core science and our impact in overcoming the daunting challenges of the dryland tropics. Likewise it illustrates the ways in which science can be mobilized to help achieve six critical development outcomes needed to bring about inclusive marketoriented development: food sufficiency, intensification, diversification, resilience, health and nutrition, and the empowerment of women.
Agriculture is the largest consumer of the world's freshwater resources, requiring 70% of available supply of which almost 40% are used for rice production (Bouman et al. 2007). 25 As the world's population rises and consumes more food and industries and urban development expands, water scarcity is becoming an increasingly important issue; improved water management systems are a must. Given the fundamental role of water in agriculture, the scope of water management is both wide-ranging and complex, a complexity that is partially reflected in the seven research themes of the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) (IWMI 2015). 26 Due to this complexity, many options for improved water management relate to other entry points (see example in Soil management,Crop production,Livestock management,Forestry and agroforestry,Capture fisheries and aquaculture, Climate information services,Policy engagement and Landscape management). In this section, the focus will be on improved water management in rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems that across different scales, including (i) farm level, (ii) irrigation systems or catchment level, and (iii) national or river basin level.
Under rainfed agriculture, improved water management can be achieved through water harvesting, soil management practices that result in the capture and retention of rainfall and through soil fertility and crop management innovations that enhance crop growth and yield and hence water use efficiency (see the entry point on Soil management), or through supplemental irrigation of dry-land crops (see Case study 2 below).
In irrigated systems, improved water management for greater water use efficiency is achievable at many stages in the process of irrigation, from the source of the water, through conveyance and application systems, scheduling and the availability of water in the root zone of the plant. Nicol et al. (2015) 27 describe many such examples drawn from East Africa, Tuong et al. (2005) 28 focus on rice-based systems in Asia.
Contribution to CSA
- Productivity: In the absence of other limitations to crop growth, all innovations which aim to reduce crop water stress through the improved capture and retention of rainfall or the improved scheduling and application of irrigation water will boost crop productivity.
- Adaptation through short-term risk management: Many water management innovations (e.g. supplemental irrigation and rainfall capture) are specifically designed to reduce or eliminate the risk of crop water stress and yield reduction.
- Adaptation through longer term risk management: The implications of climate change for water management are context specific. However, in many regions, it will likely include increased water demand and reduced water availability. Under such scenarios, especially where human populations are projected to increase substantially, all innovations which increase water availability or target reduced water use through greater water use efficiency in rainfed agriculture or irrigations systems are an important longer-term adaptation mechanism.
- Mitigation: Flooded rice systems emit substantial amounts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) methane (CH4). Alternate wetting and drying cycles in such systems not only save water, but also result in greatly reduced methane emissions (see Case study 1 below) (Sander et al. 2016). 29 In addition, irrigation strategies that reduce the amount of water required can reduce energy consumption for pumping, thereby reducing emissions (Lampayan et al. 2015). 30
FAO. 2013. Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Module 3: Water Management. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pp. 81-97.
This module examines the overall development context in which water is managed in agriculture and provides an overview of the current status, trends and challenges. It also reviews the current state of knowledge of the impact of climate change on water for agriculture and the vulnerability of rural populations and farming systems to climate change. This is followed by an examination of possible response options for addressing these impacts. These options can be applied at various scales, on individual farms, in larger irrigation schemes, throughout entire river basins and at the national level. The module also presents criteria for prioritizing response options, examines conditions for climate change adaptation and reviews opportunities for climate change mitigation.
Turral H, Burke , Faurès JM. 2011. Climate change, water and food security. FAO Water Report No. 36. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
This report summarizes current knowledge of the anticipated impacts of climate change on water availability for agriculture. The implications for local and national food security are examined; and the methods and approaches to assess climate change impacts on water and agriculture are discussed. The report emphasizes the need for a closer alignment between water and agricultural policies and makes the case for immediate implementation of ‘no-regrets’ strategies which have both positive development outcomes and make agricultural systems resilient to future impacts.
Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, Palutikof JP, (Eds.). 2008: Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC Secretariat.
The Technical Paper addresses the issue of freshwater. Sea-level rise is dealt with only insofar as it can lead to impacts on freshwater in coastal areas and beyond. Climate, freshwater, biophysical and socio-economic systems are interconnected in complex ways. Hence, a change in any one of these can induce a change in any other. Freshwater-related issues are critical in determining key regional and sectoral vulnerabilities. Therefore, the relationship between climate change and freshwater resources is of primary concern to human society and also has implications for all living species. The paper analyzes observed and projected changes in climate as they relate to water, both on impacts as well as potential responses. It further covers climate change and water resources in different systems and sectors, as well in regions. Additionally, it examines climate change mitigation measures in relation to water. Finally, it presents relevant implications for policy and sustainable development, as well as it discusses applicable gaps in knowledge.
Hoanh, C.T., Smakhtin, V., Johnston, T. (Eds.) 2016: Climate change and agricultural water management in developing countries. CABI Climate Change Series, Colombo, Sri Lanka
The book provides an analysis of impacts of climate change on water for agriculture, and the adaptation strategies in water management to deal with these impacts. Chapters include an assessment at global level, with details on impacts in various countries. Adaptation measures including groundwater management, water storage, small and large scale irrigation to support agriculture and aquaculture are presented. Agricultural implications of sea level rise, as a subsequent impact of climate change, are also examined.
Video: Alternate wetting and drying (AWD)--using less water to grow rice
Across the globe, water is fast becoming a precious commodity as more and more people use it for the household, industry, and agriculture. Since almost half of the worlds population depends on rice as its staple food, rice uses the highest amount of water in agriculture. By 2025, 15 to 20 million hectares of irrigated rice fields may suffer from water scarcity. To face this challenge, scientists at the International Rice Research Institute have developed a technique called alternate wetting and drying or AWD, which uses less water to grow rice. This video provides a glimpse on how to apply AWD in irrigated rice fields.
Video: Climate-friendly rice farming in the Philippines | Global Ideas
For more than 3 billion people around the world - 50 percent of the global population - rice is a staple of the daily diet. But not only are rice harvests highly vulnerable to climate change, rice farming is a huge source of methane emissions. Scientists at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines are striving to ensure that rice production is sustainable and stable, has minimal negative environmental impact, and can cope with climate change. The future for populations in many parts of the world relies on the success of their research.
CCAFS Big Facts website
Bouman BAM, Lampayan RM, Tuong TP. 2007. Water management in irrigated rice: coping with water scarcity. Los Banos (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute.http://books.irri.org/9789712202193_content.pdfWorldwide, about 79 million ha of irrigated lowlands provide 75% of the total rice production. Lowland rice is traditionally grown in bunded fields that are continuously flooded from crop establishment to close to harvest. It is estimated that irrigated lowland rice receives some 34–43% of the total world’s irrigation water, or 24–30% of the total world’s freshwater withdrawals. With increasing water scarcity, the sustainability, food production, and ecosystem services of rice fields are threatened. Therefore, there is a need to develop and disseminate water management practices that can help farmers to cope with water scarcity in irrigated environments. This manual provides an overview of technical response options to water scarcity. It focuses on what individual farmers can do at the field level, with a brief discussion on response options at the irrigation system level. The manual is meant as a support document for training on water management in rice production. It combines scientific background information (with many literature references for further reading) with practical suggestions for implementation. The target audience is people involved in agricultural extension or training with an advanced education in agriculture or water management, who wish to introduce sound water management practices to rice farmers (such as staff of agricultural colleges and universities, scientists, irrigation operators, and extension officers). Introductory chapters analyze the water use and water balance of rice fields, and water movement in the plant-soil system, and discuss the concepts of water scarcity and water savings. Consequences of water scarcity for sustainability, environmental impacts, and ecosystem services of irrigated rice fields are discussed at the end. An appendix introduces two simple instruments to characterize the water status of rice fields that can help farmers in applying water-saving technologies. This manual was developed through the Water Work Group of the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (which is co-funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation). The sections on aerobic rice were co-developed by the CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food through the project “Developing a System of Temperate and Tropical Aerobic Rice in Asia (STAR).” Many partners from national agricultural research and extension systems in Asia have contributed to the work described in this manual. The manual was reviewed by Dr. Ian Willet (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research) and Dr. Mohsin Hafeez (CSIRO Land and Water).
IWMI. 2015b. Research Themes.http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/research/research-themes/ This website provides access to IWMI's main research themes: ecosystem services; governance, gender and poverty; Resource recovery, water quality, and health; revitalized irrigation systems; sustainable agricultural water management; and water availability risk and resilience.
Nicol A, Langan S, Victor M, Gonsalves J, (Eds.). 2015. Water-smart agriculture in East Africa. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI).http://dx.doi.org/10.5337/2015.203 As a set of theoretical and practical approaches broadly nested under the term ‘water-smart agriculture’ (WaSA), this sourcebook complements materials on climate-smart agriculture but addresses the specific challenges and uncertainties surrounding water availability, access, and use, particularly within systems reliant on rainfall. In that sense it presents WaSA as a subset of CSA—and in some ways a more practical and tangible starting point to implementation. Many of the challenges facing farmers to adapt and increase resilience to a changing climate within landscapes either directly or indirectly are water-related, from capturing and storing uncertain rainfall and managing declining aquifers to supporting better soil moisture retention and crop use efficiency.
Tuong, TP, Bouman, BAS, Mortimer, M. 2005. More Rice, Less Water – Integrated Approaches for Increasing Water Productivity in Irrigated Rice-Based Systems in Asia, Plant Prod. Sci. 8(3), 231-241.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1626/pps.8.231The water crisis is threatening the sustainability of the irrigated rice system and food security in Asia. Our challenge is to develop novel technologies and production systems that allow rice production to be maintained or increased in the face of declining water availability. This paper introduces principles that govern technologies and systems for reducing water inputs and increasing water productivity, and assesses the opportunities of such technologies and systems at spatial scale levels from plant to field, to irrigation system, and to agro-ecological zones. We concluded that, while increasing the productivity of irrigated rice with transpired water may require breakthroughs in breeding, many technologies can reduce water inputs at the field level and increase field-level water productivity with respect to irrigation and total water inputs. Most of them, however, come at the cost of decreased yield. More rice with less water can only be achieved when water management is integrated with (i) germplasm selection and other crop and resource management practices to increase yield and (ii) system-level management such that the water saved at the field level is used more effectively to irrigate previously un-irrigated or low- productivity lands. The amount of water that can be saved at the system level could be far less than assumed from computations of field-level water savings because there is already a high degree of recycling and conjunctive use of water in many rice areas. The impact of reducing water inputs for rice production on weeds, nutrients, sustainability, and environmental services of rice ecosystems warrants further investigation.
Sander, B.O., Wassmann, R., Siopongco, J.D.L.C. (2016). Water-saving techniques: potential, adoption and empirical evidence for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice production. CABI Climate Change Series, pp. 193-207https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306371960_Water-saving_techniques_potential_adoption_and_empirical_evidence_for_mitigating_greenhouse_gas_emissions_from_rice_production
Lampayan RM, Rejesus RM, Singleton GR, Bouman BAM. 2015. Adoption and economics of alternate wetting and drying water management for irrigated lowland rice. F Crop Res. 170: 95–108.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268751540_Adoption_and_economics_of_alternate_wetting_and_drying_water_management_for_irrigated_lowland_riceTo counteract the increasing unavailability of water for agriculture, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and its national agricultural research and extension system (NARES) partners have worked together to develop and promote the “alternate wetting and drying” (AWD) water management technology. In this paper, we review progress in the development and dissemination of AWD in several Asian countries, and provide evidence of its extent of adoption and economic impact. AWD involves the partial drainage of rice fields, which is done by irrigating the fields to the desired depth and then re-irrigating after some time, when the water dissipates. To guide proper implementation, a simple, very low cost, farmer-friendly tool – a perforated “field water tube” – was devised. Demonstration trials and training have been conducted in eight countries in Asia, with large scale adoption in the Philippines, Vietnam and Bangladesh. AWD has reduced irrigation water input by up to 38% with no yield reductions if implemented correctly. Water pumping expenses and fuel consumption decrease also, thus increasing farmers’ income—by 38% in Bangladesh, 32% in the Philippines, and 17% in southern Vietnam, based on “with and without” AWD comparison. The investment to develop and disseminate the AWD technology has a high rate of return, with benefit-cost ratio of 7:1. The evidence of economic benefits at the farm level when aggregated up more than compensates for the total research investments made to develop and disseminate the technology. Successful NARES partnerships and strong farmers’ groups were critical factors in the validation and dissemination of the technology. AWD has also been successfully integrated into national government programs, which also facilitated the widespread adoption of the technology in these countries.
Richards M, Sander BO. 2014. Alternate wetting and drying in irrigated rice. CSA Practice Brief. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).https://cgspace.cgiar.org/rest/bitstreams/34363/retrieve Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) is a rice management practice that reduces water use by up to 30% and can save farmers money on irrigation and pumping costs. AWD reduces methane emissions by 48% without reducing yield. Efficient nitrogen use and application of organic inputs to dry soil can further reduce emissions. Incentives for adoption of AWD are higher when farmers pay for pump irrigation.
IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston, H.S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T. and Tanabe, K. (eds.) IGES, Japanhttp://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/
These 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories build on the previous Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines and the subsequent Good Practice reports in an evolutionary manner to ensure that moving from the previous guidelines to these new guidelines is as straightforward as possible. These new guidelines cover new sources and gases as well as updates to previously published methods where technical and scientific knowledge have improved. This guidance assists countries in compiling complete, national inventories of greenhouse gases. The guidance has been structured so that any country, regardless of experience or resources, should be able to produce reliable estimates of their emissions and removals of these gases. In particular, default values of the various parameters and emission factors required are supplied for all sectors, so that, at its simplest, a country needs only supply national activity data. The approach also allows countries with more information and resources to use more detailed country-specific methodologies while retaining compatibility, comparability and consistency between countries. The guidance also integrates and improves earlier guidance on good practice in inventory compilation so that the final estimates are neither over- nor under-estimates as far as can be judged and uncertainties are reduced as far as possible. Guidance is also provided to identify areas of the inventory whose improvement would most benefit the inventory overall. Hence limited resources can be focused on those areas most in need of improvement to produce the best practical inventory. The IPCC also manages the IPCC Emission Factor Database (EFDB). The EFDB was launched in 2002, and is regularly updated as a resource for inventory compilers to use to assist them by providing a repository of emission factors and other relevant parameters that may be suitable for use in more country-specific methodologies. The 2006 Guidelines are the latest step in the IPCC development of inventory guidelines for national estimates of greenhouse gases. In the opinion of the authors, they provide the best, widely applicable default methodologies and, as such, are suitable for global use in compiling national greenhouse gas inventories. They may also be of use in more narrowly-defined project based estimates, although here they should be used with caution to ensure they correctly include just the emissions and removals from within the system boundaries. We would also like to thank all the authors (over 250) as well as reviewers, review editors, the steering group and the TFB for their contributions and experience. We would also like to thank all the governments who contributed by hosting meetings (Oslo, Norway; Le Morne, Mauritius; Washington, USA; Arusha, Tanzania; Ottawa, Canada; Manila, The Philippines; Moscow, Russian Federation; and Sydney, Australia) as well as those who supported authors and other contributors. Finally we would like to express our gratitude to the NGGIP TSU and the IPCC Secretariat for their invaluable support throughout the entire process of drafting and producing these guidelines.
Cooper PJM, Cappiello S, Vermeulen SJ, Campbell BM, Zougmoré R, Kinyangi J. 2013. Large-scale implementation of adaptation and mitigation actions in agriculture. CCAFS Working Paper No. 50. Copenhagen, Denmark: CCAFS.https://cgspace.cgiar.org/rest/bitstreams/24708/retrieve This paper identifies sixteen cases of large-scale actions in the agriculture and forestry sectors that have adaptation and/or mitigation outcomes, and distils lessons from the cases. The cases cover policy and strategy development (including where climate-smart objectives were not the initial aim), climate risk management through insurance, weather information services and social protection, and agricultural initiatives that have a strong link to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Key lessons learned include: - Trade-offs can be avoided, at least in the near-term and over limited spatial scale - We need cost-effective and comparable indices for measuring GHG fluxes and for monitoring adaptive capacity - Strong government support is crucial to enable large-scale successes - Upfront costs may be substantial and can be met from multiple sources - An iterative and participatory learning approach with investment in capacity strengthening is critical.
Castillo GE, Le MN, Pfeifer K. 2012. Oxfam America: Learning from the System of Rice Intensification in Northern Vietnam. Focus 19, Brief 15. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).http://cdm15738.contentdm.oclc.org/utils/getfile/collection/p15738coll2/id/126992/filename/127203.pdf Despite Vietnam’s remarkable success in reducing poverty from almost 60 percent of the population in 1993 to 14 percent in 2008, 18 million Vietnamese still live on less than US$1.25 a day. Vietnam supplies a fifth of the rice consumed worldwide, and yet millions of rice farmers grow barely enough for subsistence. Over 9 million farmers in Vietnam own less than half a hectare of paddy land, generally fragmented into 6–10 smaller plots. Some 90 percent of these farmers live in the country’s northern region. They are highly vulnerable to external shocks, especially climate change and the high and volatile price of food and agricultural inputs. Meanwhile, extension services often overlook their needs and rely on prescriptive, top-down approaches that have failed to invest in their ongoing adaptive capacity.
Geerts S, Raes, D. 2009. Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas. Agricultural Water Management 96(9):1275–1284.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.04.009 Deficit irrigation (DI) has been widely investigated as a valuable and sustainable production strategy in dry regions. By limiting water applications to drought-sensitive growth stages, this practice aims to maximize water productivity and to stabilize – rather than maximize – yields. We review selected research from around the world and we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of deficit irrigation. Research results confirm that DI is successful in increasing water productivity for various crops without causing severe yield reductions. Nevertheless, a certain minimum amount of seasonal moisture must be guaranteed. DI requires precise knowledge of crop response to drought stress, as drought tolerance varies considerably by genotype and phenological stage. In developing and optimizing DI strategies, field research should therefore be combined with crop water productivity modeling.
FAO. 2002. Deficit Irrigation practices. Water Reports 22. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/wr22e.pdf This publication presents the results of a number of deficit irrigation studies carried out for various crops and under various ecological conditions, with a review of the impact of reduced water supplies on crop yield. The results of the studies are presented in ten contributions prepared by a team of scientists specialized in deficit irrigation. The articles were prepared at the request of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in close collaboration with the FAO Land and Water Development Division.
Oweis T, Hachum A. 2012. Supplemental irrigation: a highly efficient water-use practice. Aleppo, Syria: ICARDA.http://www.icarda.org/wli/pdfs/Books/Supplemental_Irrigation.pdf This book emphasizes the need greater for a better balance of investments in rainfed versus irrigated agriculture. We need a new governance, investment and management paradigm in which all water options in the farming system are considered. The book highlights several other aspects including water productivity, integration, and participatory research and development. In rainfed dry areas, where water (not land) is the most limiting factor, the priority should be to maximize yield per unit of water, rather than yield per unit of land. Supplemental irrigation can play a key role in increasing water productivity, and in ensuring more sustainable use of groundwater. For maximum benefit, supplemental irrigation must be part of an integrated package that includes non-water inputs, improved crop management methods and other components. Optimal supplemental irrigation regimes would be based on sound water management policies, economic evaluations (e.g. crop:water price ratios) and timely application. As past experience has shown, integrated, farmer-participatory research and development programs are the best way to introduce, test and scale out supplemental irrigation technology.
Stauffer B. 2012. Drip Irrigation. Basel, Switzerland: Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management (SSWM).http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/water-use/hardware/optimisation-water-use-agriculture/drip-irrigation Drip irrigation is a technique in which water flows through a filter into special drip pipes, with emitters located at different spacing. Water is distributed through the emitters directly into the soil near the roots through a special slow-release device. If the drip irrigation system is properly designed, installed, and managed, drip irrigation may help achieve water conservation by reducing evaporation and deep drainage. Compared to other types of irrigation systems such as flood or overhead sprinklers, water can be more precisely applied to the plant roots. In addition, drip can eliminate many diseases that are spread through irrigation water. Drip irrigation is adaptable to any farmable slope and is suitable for most soils. In contrary to commercial drip irrigation, simple self-made systems are cheap and effective.
Belder P, Rohrbach D, Twomlow S, Senzanje A. 2007. Can drip irrigation improve the livelihoods of smallholders? Lessons learned from Zimbabwe. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report no. 33. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: ICRISAT.http://ejournal.icrisat.org/volume5/aes/aes3.pdf It is estimated that one third of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa is malnourished. Strategiesto mitigate the effects of poor agricultural productivity and drought involve developing the continent’sunexploited irrigation potential. One intervention, based on successes from Asia, which shows promisein improving household nutrition in the rural areas through better vegetable production, is small-scaledrip irrigation. This system is said to save water and labor. Since 2002, some 70,000 low-cost, low-headdrip irrigation kits have been distributed through humanitarian relief initiatives in the rural areas ofZimbabwe.In the dry season of 2006, a country-wide survey was undertaken in Zimbabwe to determine the impactsof drip kits that had been delivered to needy households. Survey results showed that disadoption of dripkits occurred as a function of time and after 3 years only 16% of the kits were still being used. Reasons fordisadoption included lack of water, lack of understanding of the drip kit concept, and, more importantly,a lack of technical support and follow up by the non-governmental organizations that distributed the kitsand the extension services. A cost-effectiveness analysis showed that drip kits are more cost-effectivethan traditional hand watering only when potential water savings are achieved. However, this was hardlyever the case due to the beneficiaries’ lack of knowledge on crop water requirements when using the kitsand a perception that the soil surface should be wet.Consequently, the study concluded that a relatively complex technology such as drip kits should notbe part of short-term relief programs, but should instead be embedded in long-term developmentalprograms that involve both the public and private sector. This will ensure that appropriate technicalsupport is provided in terms of crop management and the development of supply chains for spare partsand additional kits.
IWMI. 2013. Making a difference drop by drop. Success Stories Issue 18. Colombo, Sri Lanka: IWMI.http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/Success_Stories/PDF/2013/Issue_18-Making_a_difference_drop_by_drop.pdf In the Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu, India, over 90% of farmers who had been encouraged to invest in drip irrigation systems did not know how to use them properly. Increases in crop productivity were disappointing. A capacity building initiative, led by the IWMI-Tata Water Policy Research Program and local partners, trained farmers in all aspects of drip irrigation. This led to water savings and yield increases of up to 40% for some crops.
In response to population growth, income increases and shifting consumption patterns, the livestock sector is growing rapidly throughout the developing world. However, climate change is likely to have considerable impacts on livestock production in the coming decades. These will include a substantial reduction in the quantity and quality of forage available in some regions and heat stress in animals. Higher temperatures, changing rainfall patterns and more frequent extreme weather events may also impact the spread and severity of existing vector-borne diseases and macro-parasites, accompanied by the emergence and circulation of new diseases. Fortunately, the sector offers a wide range of opportunities for enhancing resilience, while mitigating emissions and increasing productivity. These opportunities link to several other climate-smart agriculture (CSA) entry points, particularly those revolving around soil and water management, insurance and value chains.
Contribution to CSA
There are various ways in which improved or modified livestock management can contribute to CSA:
- Productivity: Interventions that target improved feed resources directly increase productivity. For cattle, examples include improved grazing management, the use of improved pasture and agroforestry species (see Case study 1), and the use of nutritious diet supplements. Similarly, interventions aimed at improving animal health, such as appropriate vaccination programs and the use of more disease-resistant animals, will also improve animal productivity. Other key measure for productivity include management of herd size and age structure. In non-grazing livestock systems, interventions aimed at increasing heat tolerance through breeding and reducing heat stress through effective animal cooling systems can increase productivity. Appropriate manure management can also lead to increased productivity of both food and fodder crops.
- Adaptation: In grazing systems, livestock insurance instruments and early warning systems can help pastoralists to manage climate related risks associated with extreme events (to learn more about livestock insurance, see the case studies under Energy management). In mixed crop-livestock systems, risk can sometimes be ameliorated via the addition and/or substitution of crop and livestock species and breeds that are more tolerant of heat or drought.
- Mitigation: There are many mitigation opportunities associated with feed interventions that increase productivity while decreasing the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced per kilogram of meat and milk. Improved grazing management can also increase carbon sequestration in soil, although there is some uncertainty associated with its mitigation potential. Emissions can also be reduced by compacting and covering farmyard manure, although opportunities in the developing world for such management are generally limited. In addition, appropriately timing the application of manure to crops can reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Other opportunities exist, such as the use of feed additives that modify the production of methane by ruminants, however, technical and other constraints to the uptake of such additives are likely to persist for the foreseeable future. Management of herd size and age structure are other key measures for reducing GHG emissions.
Thornton PK, Herrero M. 2015. Adapting to climate change in the mixed crop and livestock farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature Climate Change 5:830–836.
Mixed crop–livestock systems are the backbone of African agriculture, providing food security and livelihood options for hundreds of millions of people. Much is known about the impacts of climate change on the crop enterprises in the mixed systems, and some, although less, on the livestock enterprises. The interactions between crops and livestock can be managed to contribute to environmentally sustainable intensification, diversification and risk management. There is relatively little information on how these interactions may be affected by changes in climate and climate variability. This is a serious gap, because these interactions may offer some buffering capacity to help smallholders adapt to climate change. This article reviews the major advances on livestock and the environment in the past five to eight years. It provides a brief account of resource use by livestock (for land, biomass, nitrogen, and water), climate change adaptation, and mitigation challenges for the livestock sector. It also discusses options for reducing the environmental footprint of livestock and provides guidance for building a responsive research agenda on this topic for the coming years.
FAO. 2013. Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Module 8: Climate-smart Livestock. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pp. 211-227.
This module assesses the role of livestock in climate-smart agriculture (CSA). Adopting a farming system perspective, it highlights the main climate-smart strategies for the sector. The first section describes trends in the livestock sector and the contribution it makes to food security. The second section assesses the impact of climate change on livestock and identifies adaptation and mitigation needs. It also presents an overview of emissions caused by livestock. The module outlines the principles of climate-smart livestock, focusing on increased efficiency of resource use and building resilience. The last section gives insights into main strategies for achieving climate-smart livestock and covers land-based, mixed and landless systems.
Andeweg K, Reisinger A. 2014. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock: Best practice and emerging options. Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases and SAI Platform.
Livestock plays an important role in climate change. Livestock systems, including energy use and land-use change along the supply chain, accounted for an estimated 14.5% of total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from human activities in 2010. More than half of these (about 65%) are related to cattle. Direct emissions from livestock and feed production constitute some 80% of total agriculture emissions, and thus need to be part of any effort to reduce the contribution of food production to global climate change.
CCAFS Big Facts website
Direct agricultural emissions from livestock:
Evidence of success for livestock:
Thornton PK, Herrero M. 2014. Climate change adaptation in mixed crop-livestock systems in developing countries. Global Food Security 3(2):99-107.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.02.002 Mixed crop–livestock systems produce most of the world's milk and ruminant meat, and are particularly important for the livelihoods and food security of poor people in developing countries. These systems will bear the brunt of helping to satisfy the burgeoning demand for food from increasing populations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where rural poverty and hunger are already concentrated. The potential impacts of changes in climate and climate variability on these mixed systems are not that well understood, particularly as regards how the food security of vulnerable households may be affected. There are many ways in which the mixed systems may be able to adapt to climate change in the future, including via increased efficiencies of production that sometimes provide important mitigation co-benefits as well. But effective adaptation will require an enabling policy, technical, infrastructural and informational environment, and the development challenge is daunting.
Wambugu C, Franzel S. 2014. Fodder Shrubs for increasing the Incomes of (Peri)urban Livestock Owners. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre.http://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/Fodder%20Shrubs%20for%20Increasing%20the%20Incomes%20of%20(Peri)urban%20Livestock%20Owners_1.pdf In Kenya, there are about 650,000 smallholder dairy farmers and most are near cities and towns, where milk demand is high and marketing costs are relatively low. Milk is highly perishable, which is a primary reason why it is produced in and around urban areas.
Thornton PK, Herrero M. 2010. The potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics. PNAS 107(46):19667–19672.http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0912890107 We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO2-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO2-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility.
Rao IM, Peters M, van der Hoek R, Castro A, Subbarao G, Cadisch G, Rincón A. 2014. Tropical forage-based systems for climate-smart livestock production in Latin America. Rural21.http://www.rural21.com/uploads/media/rural2014_04-S12-15.pdf Tropical forage grasses and legumes as key components of sustainable crop-livestock systems in Latin America and the Caribbean have major implications for improving food security, alleviating poverty, restoring degraded lands and mitigating climate change. Climate-smart tropical forage crops can improve the livestock productivity of smallholder farming systems and break the cycle of poverty and resource degradation. Sustainable intensification of forage-based systems contributes to better human nutrition, increases farm incomes, raises soil carbon accumulation and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.
Silvestri S, Bryan E, Ringler C, Herrero M, Okoba B. 2012. Climate change perception and adaptation of agro-pastoral communities in Kenya. Regional Environmental Change 12(4):791-802.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10113-012-0293-6
Data on agro-pastoralists’ perceptions of climate change and adaptation options were collected from agro-pastoral communities in 7 rural districts of Kenya. Key adaptation strategies for livestock producers include mixing crop and livestock production, destocking, diversifying livestock feeds, changing animal breeds and moving animals to other sites. Desired adaptation options include introducing new breeds and increasing herd size. Additionally, the main barriers to adaptation identified include lack of credit or savings followed by lack of access to land and inputs. Farmers adaptation among livestock producers is also hindered by the absence of markets, particularly for the purchase of additional animal or new breeds or species.
FAOSTAT. 2016. Agriculture Total. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistics Division.http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/GT Agriculture Total contains all the emissions produced in the different agricultural emissions sub-domains (enteric fermentation, manure management, rice cultivation, synthetic fertilizers, manure applied to soils, manure left on pastures, crop residues, cultivation of organic soils, burning of crop residues, burning of savanna, energy use), providing a picture of the contribution to the total amount of GHG emissions from agriculture. GHG emissions from agriculture consist of non-CO2 gases, namely methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), produced by crop and livestock production and management activities.
Herrero M, Thornton PK, Havlik P, Rufino MC. 2013. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions: mitigation options and trade-offs. In: Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture. London: Earthscan.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203144510
Smith P et al. 2007. Agriculture. In: Metz B et al., (Eds.). 2007. Climate Change: Mitigation. Contribution of WG III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-chapter8.pdf Agricultural lands (lands used for agricultural production, consisting of cropland, managed grassland and permanent crops including agro-forestry and bio-energy crops) occupy about 40- 50% of the Earth’s land surface. Agriculture accounted for an estimated emission of 5.1 to 6.1 GtCO2-eq/yr in 2005 (10-12% of total global anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)). A variety of options exists for mitigation of GHG emissions in agriculture. The most prominent options are improved crop and grazing land management (e.g., improved agronomic practices, nutrient use, tillage, and residue management), restoration of organic soils that are drained for crop production and restoration of degraded lands. Lower but still significant mitigation is possible with improved water and rice management; set-asides, land use change (e.g., conversion of cropland to grassland) and agro-forestry; as well as improved livestock and manure management. Many mitigation opportunities use current technologies and can be implemented immediately, but technological development will be a key driver ensuring the efficacy of additional mitigation measures in the future (high agreement, much evidence). Overall, the outlook for GHG mitigation in agriculture suggests that there is significant potential (high agreement, medium evidence). Current initiatives suggest that synergy between climate change policies, sustainable development and improvement of environmental quality will likely lead the way forward to realize the mitigation potential in this sector.
Bizimana C, Usengumukiza F, Kalisa J, Rwirahira J. 2012. Trends in Key Agricultural and Rural Development Indicators in Rwanda. Kigali, Rwanda: Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI).http://www.minagri.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/RWANDA_SAKSS/Annual_Trends_and_Outlook_Report_2012.pdf This report gives an account of the progress towards achieving the Vision 2020 goals and Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) targets, the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1), and the implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) compact in Rwanda. It is significant that these various targets have a common goal of engendering the modernization and transformation of the agriculture sector.
Ishihara Y, Bundervoet T, Sanghi A, Nishiuchi T. 2016. Rwanda - Economic update: Rwanda at work. Rwanda economic update 9(1). Washington, DC: World Bank.http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/126991468197359041/pdf/103618-WP-P156677-PUBLIC-Rwanda-Economic-Update-Feb-25-2016.pdf Rwanda’s growth rates during the past few years exceeded the growth rates of developing countries, except for in 2013 when Rwanda’s growth decelerated to 4.7 percent. Among the 181 economies where 2014 gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate data is available, Rwanda’s growth rate of 7.0 percent is more than twice as high as the average of the 181 economies (3.2 percent), and is ranked 20th globally. Going forward, Rwanda’s growth rates are projected to exceed global growth rates in 2015-2017. This edition focuses on jobs in particular the employment dynamics of the past decade.
Schmidt M, Pearson O. 2016. Pastoral livelihoods under pressure: Ecological, political and socioeconomic transitions in Afar (Ethiopia). Journal of Arid Environments 124:22–30.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.07.003 The Afar pastoralists that reside in arid and semi-arid regions of Ethiopia have fallen under increasing pressure as rangelands and natural resources are affected by recurrent droughts, overgrazing, erosion processes, alien plant invasion and governmental land policies. This paper investigates the impact of these environmental, institutional and cultural changes on natural resource management strategies, using empirical research undertaken in four villages of western Afar (Ethiopia) to assess the related challenges to local livelihoods. Qualitative interviews with various stakeholders reveal that the authority and use of traditional common property regimes have been considerably diminished and traditional livelihood practices threatened. Many pastoralists have adopted agriculture in a move away from pure pastoralism to agro-pastoralism, a transition exaggerated by changing property rights and the Federal Government's sedentarisation program, which is presented as a means of reducing poverty. On-going land privatisation and an increased government presence in the region weaken indigenous institutions and cultural practices, with no clear local understanding of the impact on future generations and Afar identity.
Amenu K, Markemann A, Roessler R, SiegmundSchultze M, Abebe G, Zarate AV. 2013. Constraints and challenges of meeting the water requirements of livestock in Ethiopia: cases of Lume and Siraro districts. Tropical Animal Health and Production 45(7):1539-48.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-013-0397-0 Compared to the total water use in livestock production systems, water for livestock drinking is small in amount but is an important requirement for health and productivity of animals. This study was carried out to assess constraints and challenges of meeting drinking water requirements of livestock in rural mixed smallholder crop-livestock farming districts in the Ethiopian Rift Valley area. Data was collected by individual interviews with randomly selected respondents and farmer group discussions. Farmers ranked feed and water scarcity as the two most important constraints for livestock husbandry, although the ranking order differed between districts and villages. Poor quality water was a concern for the communities in proximity to urban settlements or industrial establishments. Water provision for livestock was challenging during the dry season, since alternative water sources dried up or were polluted. Though rainwater harvesting by dugout constructions was practiced to cope with water scarcity, farmers indicated that mismanagement of the harvested water was posing health risks on both livestock and people. A sustainable water provision for livestock in the area, thus, depends on use of different water sources (intermittent or perennial) that should be properly managed. Industrial establishments should adopt an environment-friendly production to minimize pollution of water resources used for livestock consumption. Technical support to farmers is required in proper design and use of existing rainwater harvesting systems. Further investigations are recommended on effect of poor quality water (perceived by farmers) on performance of livestock.
Rettberg S. 2010. Contested narratives of pastoral vulnerability and risk in Ethiopia’s Afar region. Pastoralism 1(2):248-273.https://practicalaction.org/docs/publishing/s7.pdf This paper emphasises the role of local knowledge, risk perceptions and decision patterns in analyzing changing pastoral livelihood strategies. Based on an intensive empirical case study within the Middle Awash Basin of Ethiopia’s Afar region it is argued that the main concern for Afar pastoralists are political risks evolving from recurrent violent confl icts and increasing governmental development interventions, while drought plays only a minor role within local narratives of risk. Special attention is drawn to the strategic instrumentalization of heterogeneous governmental and pastoral risk narratives and the impact of confl icting narratives on the current pastoral livelihood crisis, shaped by an increasing vulnerability and an ongoing political and economic marginalization of pastoralists in Ethiopia.
Forestry and agroforestry
Forestry and agroforestry plays an important role in global efforts to tackle climate change. Forests are home to nearly 60 million indigenous people (FAO 2013b), 54 and support a much bigger number by providing a variety of ecosystem services (food, fuel, water, carbon sequestration, biodiversity etc.). For example, the FAO estimates that 2.4 billion people cook using wood fuel, and that wood energy is a major source of primary energy in developing regions (FAO 2014c). 55 Climate change threatens the delivery of these ecosystem services, and can consequently impact rural livelihoods. Agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors account for a quarter of global emissions. Forests and trees on farms are an important carbon sink and this potential can be increased through afforestation efforts. Deforestation is the major cause of emissions from the forestry sector, and agriculture remains the key driver of deforestation.
In smallholder systems in developing countries, farms and forests are often part of complex rural landscapes, which collectively fulfil the livelihood needs of the rural populace. This means that efforts of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) should adopt integrated approaches when developing interventions. Increasing the resilience of forest systems to maintain and enhance the flow of ecosystem services, mitigating emissions from the sector by reducing deforestation and increasing forest cover, and agroforestry are some of the possible interventions, but these need to be considered in the context of the wider landscape (Locatelli et al. 2015). 56 Ongoing efforts in Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) provide a sound foundation for actions in the sector, and climate-smart forestry will involve more widespread application of SFM principles (FAO 2013b). 54 Capacity building within local institutions and strengthening governance process will also be a priority within the sector (ibid). REDD+ (Reduced Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), which is another more recent approach promoted to protect forests, still needs to go beyond incentives and payments structure to address agricultural drives of deforestation such as governance and institutional failure, low financial return of forest use and lack of local user rights and inadequate land tenure arrangements (Matthews et al. 2014, 57 Kissinger 2011). 58
Contribution to CSA
Actions in the forestry and agroforestry sectors can contribute to all three CSA pillars:
- Productivity: The production of ecosystem services, including provisioning services (food, fibre, fuel, etc.) can be improved by using a CSA approach. For example, by adopting agroforestry practices on farms, farmers are able to harvest tree products, supplement their diets, and also develop additional income streams. Integrating trees in farming systems can also improve soil quality, leading to higher and more stable crop yields. SFM, where, for example, local communities are given concessions to harvest timber and non-timber products, likewise adds to the productive portfolio of small-scale farmers.
- Adaptation: Healthy and diverse ecosystems are more resilient to natural hazards. Trees on farms can be used as shelterbelts and windbreaks, and play an important role in protecting against landslides, floods and avalanches. Trees also stabilize riverbanks and mitigate soil erosion. Agroforestry practices increase the absorptive capacity of soil and reduce evapotranspiration. The canopy cover from trees can also have direct benefits: reducing soil temperature for crops planted underneath, and reducing runoff velocity and soil erosion caused by heavy rainfall (De Leeuw et al. 2014). 59
- Mitigation: Actions that increase tree cover (afforestation, reforestation, and agroforestry) and reduce deforestation and degradation, increase carbon sequestration through increased biomass both above and below ground.
Chandrasekharan D, Labbate G, Verchot L. 2014. Forests and climate change. Background Brief. Global Landscapes Forum.
The paper offers a comprehensive brief of current topics and debates in forestry in the context of climate change. Topics covered include; Better management of agricultural lands, forests, and tree resources; Actions in both the agriculture and forestry sectors that can contribute to reducing emissions, and enhance resilience and reduce vulnerability of rural populations around the world; Land-use change for agriculture, including tropical deforestation; The contribution of forests to carbon sequestration and mitigation of emissions etc.
Mbow C, Neufeldt H, Minang PA, Luedeling E, Kowero G. 2014. Sustainability challenges. Special Issue. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6:1-170.
This special issue consolidates and celebrates a generation of research on the Agroforestry, with a focus on Africa. Agroforestry has emerged as a system for study in an era where research in rural systems has moved beyond a purely agronomic focus to embrace a more comprehensive view of social–ecological system. Hence the scope of this issue is far more than production and ecology. It recognizes and explores examples of the intimate and interactive flow of influences between the human and environmental aspects of delivering livelihoods at both local and regional scales. Indeed, Africa faces major challenges of food, water and energy security, equity and poverty and environmental degradation. In the context of the livelihoods delivered by rural Africa to about 70% of its billion people, agroforestry can assist with all of these challenges.
FAO. 2013. Climate change guidelines for forest managers. FAO Forestry Paper No. 172. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
This document provides guidance on what forest managers should consider in assessing vulnerability, risk, mitigation options, and actions for adaptation, mitigation and monitoring in response to climate change. Recommended actions for climate change adaptation address impacts on: forest productivity; biodiversity; water availability and quality; fire; pests and diseases; extreme weather events; sea-level rise; and economic, social and institutional considerations. A range of mitigation actions is provided, along with guidance on the additional monitoring and evaluation that may be required in forests in the face of climate change.
CCAFS Big Facts website
Emissions from forestry and land use:
Forestry and land use:
Forests and landscapes:
FAO. 2013b. Climate change guidelines for forest managers. FAO Forestry Paper No. 172. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/3/i3383e.pdf
This document provides guidance on what forest managers should consider in assessing vulnerability, risk, mitigation options, and actions for adaptation, mitigation and monitoring in response to climate change. Recommended actions for climate change adaptation address impacts on: forest productivity; biodiversity; water availability and quality; fire; pests and diseases; extreme weather events; sea-level rise; and economic, social and institutional considerations. A range of mitigation actions is provided, along with guidance on the additional monitoring and evaluation that may be required in forests in the face of climate change.
FAO. 2014c. State of the World’s Forests Enhancing the socioeconomic benefits from forests. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3710e.pdf
This edition of FAO’s State of the World’s Forests report (SOFO 2014) addresses a crucial knowledge gap by bringing together and analysing data about the socioeconomic benefits of forests that has not been systematically examined before. The first chapter of the report sets out its context and purpose. Chapter 2 describes what is known about the socioeconomic benefits from forests. Section 3 presents the data that was collected for SOFO 2014 and the results of the analysis showing how forests contribute to well-being. Chapter 4 describes the policies and measures that countries have used to support or enhance the production of these benefits. The concluding chapter synthesizes the results and presents recommendations about how the links between policies and benefits might be improved.
Locatelli, Pavageau C, Pramova E, Di Gregorio M. 2015. Integrating Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Agriculture and Forestry: Opportunities and Trade-offs. WIREs Climate Change 6(6):585-598.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wcc.357 Although many activities can jointly contribute to the climate change strategies of adaptation and mitigation, climate policies have generally treated these strategies separately. In recent years, there has been a growing interest shown by practitioners in agriculture, forestry, and landscape management in the links between the two strategies. This review explores the opportunities and trade-offs when managing landscapes for both climate change mitigation and adaptation; different conceptualizations of the links between adaptation and mitigation are highlighted. Under a first conceptualization of ‘joint outcomes,’ several reviewed studies analyze how activities without climatic objectives deliver joint adaptation and mitigation outcomes. In a second conceptualization of ‘unintended side effects,’ the focus is on how activities aimed at only one climate objective—either adaptation or mitigation—can deliver outcomes for the other objective. A third conceptualization of ‘joint objectives’ highlights that associating both adaptation and mitigation objectives in a climate-related activity can influence its outcomes because of multiple possible interactions. The review reveals a diversity of reasons for mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation separately or jointly in landscape management. The three broad conceptualizations of the links between adaptation and mitigation suggest different implications for climate policy mainstreaming and integration.
Matthews RB et al. 2014. Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): Evidence on Governance, Evaluation and Impacts from the REDD-Alert project. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 19(6):907–925.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11027-014-9578-z The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that would help change the behaviour of land users while minimising adverse repercussions on their livelihoods. Findings showed that some developing tropical countries have recently been through a forest transition, thus shifting from declining to expanding forests at a national scale. However, in most of these (e.g. Vietnam), a significant part of the recent increase in national forest cover is associated with an increase in importation of food and timber products from abroad, representing leakage of carbon stocks across international borders. Avoiding deforestation and restoring forests will require a mixture of regulatory approaches, emerging market-based instruments, suasive options, and hybrid management measures. Policy analysis and modelling work showed the high degree of complexity at local levels and highlighted the need to take this heterogeneity into account—it is unlikely that there will be a one size fits all approach to make Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) work. Significant progress was made in the quantification of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes following land-use change in the tropics, contributing to narrower confidence intervals on peat-based emissions and their reporting standards. There are indications that there is only a short and relatively small window of opportunity of making REDD+ work—these included the fact that forest-related emissions as a fraction of total global GHG emissions have been decreasing over time due to the increase in fossil fuel emissions, and that the cost efficiency of REDD+ may be much less than originally thought due to the need to factor in safeguard costs, transaction costs and monitoring costs. Nevertheless, REDD+ has raised global awareness of the world’s forests and the factors affecting them, and future developments should contribute to the emergence of new landscape-based approaches to protecting a wider range of ecosystem services.
Kissinger G. 2011. Linking forests and food production in the REDD+ context. CCAFS Policy Brief 3. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).https://cgspace.cgiar.org/rest/bitstreams/15412/retrieve
This policy brief summarizes key findings from the report, “Linking forests and food production in the REDD+ context.” The report evaluated the extent to which countries participating in the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) readiness activities are actively linking REDD+ to agriculture policies and programmes and institutional and governance arrangements. The analysis is based on 20 current country REDD Readiness Preparation Proposals (R-PPs) submitted to the FCPF.
De Leeuw J, Njenga M, Wagner B, Iiyama M, (Eds.). 2014. Tree resilience: An assessment of the resilience provided by trees in the drylands of Eastern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF).http://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/Publications/PDFS/B17611.pdf This book is the result of a consultative process, which brought together experts from Eastern Africa and beyond to synthesize and compile existing information on the role of trees in building resilience in the region’s drylands. The group consisted of a mixture of experts with backgrounds in research, academia, government, farmers and development practitioners, and the book reflects the knowledge and perspectives of these various groups. The book begins by describing the rationale behind the initiative followed by a clarification on the background and approach taken. Chapter three then describes the Eastern African region and argues why there is a need to build resilience in the livelihoods of communities living in drylands. Chapter four builds on this by introducing an ecosystem services perspective as the conceptual framework to explore the resilience offered by trees. Chapter five reviews the ecology, distribution and use of trees throughout the Eastern African region. Chapter six uses an ecosystem service perspective to review the various benefits that people derive from dryland trees. Chapter seven draws on experiences gained in development practices and presents and reviews 11 case studies of natural resource management. Chapter eight presents reflections of the write-shop participants on how best practice in resilience-building could be scaled up. A review of knowledge and information gaps regarding the contribution of trees in building resilience is presented in chapter nine, which is followed by a plan for possible follow-up action in chapter ten.
Dinesh D, Frid-Nielsen S, Norman J, Mutamba M, Loboguerrero Rodriguez AM, and Campbell B. 2015b. Is Climate-Smart Agriculture effective? A review of selected cases. CCAFS Working Paper no. 129. Copenhagen, Denmark: CCAFS.https://cgspace.cgiar.org/rest/bitstreams/58510/retrieve Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) is an approach to address the interlinked challenges of food security and climate change, and has three objectives: (1) sustainably increasing agricultural productivity, to support equitable increases in farm incomes, food security and development; (2) adapting and building resilience of agricultural and food security systems to climate change at multiple levels; and (3) reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture (including crops, livestock and fisheries). This paper examines 19 CSA case studies, to assess their effectiveness in achieving the stated objectives of CSA, while also assessing other cobenefits, economic costs and benefits, barriers to adoption, success factors, and gender and social inclusion issues. The analysis concludes that CSA interventions can be highly effective, achieving the three CSA objectives, while also generating additional benefits in a costeffective and inclusive manner. However, this depends on context specific project design and implementation, for which institutional capacity is key. The paper also identifies serious gaps in data availability and comparability, which restricts further analysis.
Pye-Smith C. 2013. The quiet revolution: How Niger's farmers are re-greening the parklands of the Sahel. ICRAF Trees for Change no. 12. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).http://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/Publications/PDFS/BL17569.pdf
This book is timely as it addresses the role of trees in enhancing the resilience of livelihoods and economies in the drylands of Eastern Africa. The book begins by describing the rationale behind the initiative followed by a clarification on the background and approach taken. Chapter three then describes the Eastern African region and argues why there is a need to build resilience in the livelihoods of communities living in drylands. Chapter four builds on this by introducing an ecosystem services perspective as the conceptual framework to explore the resilience offered by trees. Chapter five reviews the ecology, distribution and use of trees throughout the Eastern African region. Chapter six uses an ecosystem service perspective to review the various benefits that people derive from dryland trees. Chapter seven draws on experiences gained in development practices and presents and reviews 11 case studies of natural resource management. Chapter eight presents reflections of the write-shop participants on how best practice in resilience-building could be scaled up. A review of knowledge and information gaps regarding the contribution of trees in building resilience is presented in chapter nine, which is followed by a plan for possible follow-up action in chapter ten.
Reij C, Tappan G, Smale M. 2009. Agro-environmental Transformation in the Sahel: Another kind of "Green Revolution". IFPRI Discussion Paper 00914. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.http://core.ac.uk/download/files/153/6257709.pdf A farmer-managed, agroenvironmental transformation has occurred over the past three decades in the West African Sahel, enabling both land rehabilitation and agricultural intensification to support a dense and growing population. This paper traces the technical and institutional innovations, their impacts, and lessons learned from two successful examples. The first is the story of the improvement and replication of indigenous soil and water conservation practices across the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso. Rehabilitation of at least 200,000 hectares of degraded land enabled farmers to grow cereals on land that had been barren and intensify production through developing agroforestry systems. Additionally, rehabilitation appears to have recharged local wells. The second example is a farmer-managed process of natural regeneration, using improved, local agroforestry practices over an estimated 5 million hectares in southern Niger. This large-scale effort reduced wind erosion and increased the production and marketing of crops, fodder, firewood, fruit, and other products. In both cases, income opportunities were created, reducing incentives for migration. Women benefited from the improved supply of water, fuelwood, and other tree products. Human, social, and political capital was strengthened in a process of farmer-driven change. Fluid coalitions of actors expanded the scale of the transformation. These stories have important lessons for those who seek to create effective agricultural development partnerships and meet the challenges of climate change and food security.
Chavan SB, Keerthika A, Dhyani SK, Handa AK, Newaj R, Rajarajan K. 2015. National Agroforestry Policy in India: a low hanging fruit. Current Science 108(10):1826-1834.http://www.currentscience.ac.in/Volumes/108/10/1826.pdf Since ages agroforestry has been known as a traditional land-use system in India. The multivarious benefits and services generated are recognized as a tool to improve the livelihood status of farmers. Commercial agroforestry gained momentum in the regions where it got support from industry and assured market facilities. However, lack of policy initiatives and strict trade regulations has not supported wide adoption of agroforestry. Though prominent agroforestry models are being developed in different parts of the country, there is no clear-cut mechanism from seed procurement to marketing of the products. In this context, the National Agroforestry Policy, 2014 came in limelight to address the issues of quality planting material, tree insurance, restrictions on transit and harvesting, marketing of agroforestry produce, research and extension. This article links highlights of the policy to existing successful ground-level schemes and the challenges to focus on agroforestry not only as a successful land-use system, but also to utilize its full potential in the economic development of the country.
Government of India. 2014. National agroforestry policy. Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture. New Delhi: Government of India.http://agricoop.nic.in/imagedefault/whatsnew/Agroforestry.pdf This document covers the Government of India's 2014 National Agroforestry policy. The policy document includes a justification for agroforestry, with a presentation of goals, basic objectives as well as a strategy and potential mechanisms and pathways for achieving policy deliverables.
Holland MB, Shamer SZ, Imbach P, Zamora JC, Moreno CM, Hidalgo EJL, Donatti C, Martinez-Rodriguez RM, Harvey CA. 2017. Mapping adaptive capacity and smallholder agriculture: applying expert knowledge at the landscape scale. Climatic Change 141(1):139-153.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1810-2 The impacts of climate change exacerbate the myriad challenges faced by smallholder farmers in the Tropics. In many of these same regions, there is a lack of current, consistent, and spatially-explicit data, which severely limits the ability to locate smallholder communities, map their adaptive capacity, and target adaptation measures to these communities. To explore the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers in three data-poor countries in Central America, we leveraged expert input through in-depth mapping interviews to locate agricultural landscapes, identify smallholder farming systems within them, and characterize different components of farmer adaptive capacity. We also used this input to generate an index of adaptive capacity that allows for comparison across countries and farming systems. Here, we present an overview of the expert method used, followed by an examination of our results, including the intercountry variation in expert knowledge and the characterization of adaptive capacity for both subsistence and smallholder coffee farmers. While this approach does not replace the need to collect regular and consistent data on farming systems (e.g. agricultural census), our study demonstrates a rapid assessment approach for using expert input to fill key data gaps, enable trans-boundary comparisons, and to facilitate the identification of the most vulnerable smallholder communities for adaptation planning in data-poor environments that are typical of tropical regions. One potential benefit from incorporating this approach is that it facilitates the systematic consideration of field-based and regional experience into assessments of adaptive capacity, contributing to the relevance and utility of adaptation plans.
Baca M, Läderach P, Haggar J, Schroth G, Ovalle O. 2014. An Integrated Framework for Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Developing Adaptation Strategies for Coffee Growing Families in Mesoamerica. PLOS ONE 9(2):e88463.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088463 The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and strengthening of farmer organizations to enable the adjustment of adaptation strategies to local needs and conditions.
Capture fisheries and aquaculture
Capture fisheries and aquaculture support the livelihoods of 660 to 820 million people. Producing over 150 million tons of fish per year, 85 percent of which is used directly for food, the sector supplies protein and essential nutrition for 4.3 billion people around the world. Currently, the sector generates first-sale values of over USD 218 billion annually and fish products are among the world's most widely traded foods; more than 37% of output is traded internationally (FAO 2012c). 67 What's more, aquaculture is the world's fastest growing food production system, expanding at a rate of 7% per year, so these figures should be expected to increase in the future. However, current and projected climate change threatens both productivity and livelihood security of those depending on this sector.
- Coastal communities: Changes in ocean acidity and temperature are causing major disruptions in marine species’ biological cycles, migration patterns and food chains, leading to decreased fish populations and to global changes of fish locations. Another possible effect is the loss of biodiversity through the extinction of specialized or endemic fish species. In addition, more frequent and extreme weather events, combined with a slow onset sea level rise and increasing salinity, threatens fisheries and aquaculture installations along coastal shorelines (Ficke et al. 2007). 68
- Inland communities: Changing rainfall patterns and water scarcity is impacting on river and lake fisheries and aquaculture production. In addition, more erratic rainfall and extreme events are causing more frequent droughts and floods, modifying soil erosion and siltation processes, thus causing major negative changes in rivers and water bodies (FAO 2013a). 21
Contribution to CSA
- Productivity: All innovations that (i) enhance the management of coastal and inland fishery and aquaculture ecosystems and (ii) increase efficiency by sustainably intensifying production, using better integrated systems, improving stocks and reducing losses from disease, will increase productivity.
- Adaptation through climate risk management: A wide range of possible responses to climate-induced risk exists (see Tables 10.1 to 10.3, page 257 -262 in FAO 2013a). 21 Examples of adaptation practices in capture fisheries include accessing higher value markets to offset reduced yield, diversification of livelihoods to reduce the impact of yield variability, flexible capture strategies to allow for change in fish distribution, weather warning systems to reduce dangers of fishing and new physical or biological defenses to alleviate sea level change and storm surges. While aquaculture in itself is often seen as an adaptation strategy against the climate related risks impacting marine fisheries or farming, it requires adaptation to climate change as well. Examples include improved farm siting and weather forecasting to reduce the impact of increased extreme weather events, selective breeding and genetic improvements to counteract the impact of global warming and increased diseases, and short cycle production and water sharing systems for greater incidence of drought.
- Mitigation: Around 30% of annual emissions are sequestrated in aquatic environments, primarily in mangroves, sea grasses, floodplain forests and coastal sediments (known as ‘blue carbon’); hence it is important to halt the disruption of carbon sequestration caused by coastal habitat destruction (Nellemann et al 2009). 69 In addition, there are prospects for enhancing sequestration through expanding planted areas of mangroves and floodplain forests. Reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are also achievable by regulating the fuel use of fishing fleets through flexible quota allocations.
Barange M, Merino G, Blanchard JL, Scholtens J, Harle J, Allison EH, Allen JI, Holt J, Jennings S. Impacts of climate change on marine ecosystem production in societies dependent on fisheries. Nature Climate Change 4:211–216.
The authors have developed and linked models of physical, biological and human responses to climate change in 67 marine national exclusive economic zones, which yield approximately 60% of global fish catches, to project climate change yield impacts in countries with different dependencies on marine fisheries. The paper also evaluates the societal relevance of these results by looking at the dependency of individual countries on their fisheries sectors in terms of food and livelihood security, as well as at the expected global demand for fish products for an increasing human population.
FAO. 2013. Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Module 10: Climate-smart fisheries and aquaculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pp. 241-271.
This module looks at the climate smart agriculture concept from the perspective of the fisheries and aquaculture sector. Organized into six sections, the module provides an overview of the contributions made by the fisheries and aquaculture sector, the climate change impacts pathways that are affecting the sector and the vulnerabilities currently undermining resilience in aquatic systems. The ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture (EAF/EAA) is presented as the underlying approach to developing climate-smart fisheries and aquaculture. Actions that support this approach are: sustainably increasing output productivity and efficiency within the sector; reducing the sector’s vulnerability and increasing its resilience to change; and reducing and removing greenhouse gases (GHG) from within the sector. The module presents options for supporting these actions at different levels (national, regional, subsector, individual enterprise and community). The module concludes with an evaluation of the sector’s progress towards CSA and the elements that support the successful transition to CSA. Boxes are used throughout the module to provide concrete examples of CSA actions and approaches.
OECD. 2010. The Economics of Adapting Fisheries to Climate Change. OECD Publishing.
The report highlights the economic and policy aspects of adapting the fisheries sector to climate change. It provides with specific recommendations to fisheries policy makers that need to develop adaptation strategies that take into account the economic consequences of climate change. Between others, it discusses topics including how to: Strengthen global governance of fisheries; Communicate clearly with stakeholders, including the public, on how climate change will affect fisheries; Extend the use of rights-based management systems; Protect ecosystems; End environmentally harmful subsidies; Focus on aquaculture and on demand for sustainably caught seafood. It finally presents three country case studies on fisheries and climate change in UK, South Korea, and Taiwan, China.
Cochrane K, De Young C, Soto D, Bahri T, (Eds.). 2009. Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture: overview of current scientific knowledge. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper no. 530. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
The report presents an overview of the current scientific knowledge available on climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture is provided through three technical papers that were presented and discussed during the Expert Workshop on Climate Change Implications for Fisheries and Aquaculture (Rome, 7–9 April 2008). A summary of the workshop outcomes as well as key messages on impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and on fisheries- and aquaculture-based livelihoods are provided in the introduction of this Technical Paper.
The first paper reviews the physical and ecological impacts of climate change relevant to marine and inland capture fisheries and aquaculture. The paper begins with a review of the physical impacts of climate change on marine and freshwater systems and then connects these changes with observed effects on fish production processes. It also outlines a series of scenarios of climate change impacts on fish production and ecosystems through case studies in different regions and ecosystems.
The second paper tackles the consequences of climate change impacts on fisheries and their dependent communities. It analyses the exposure, sensitivity and vulnerability of fisheries to climate change and presents examples of adaptive mechanisms currently used in the sector. The contribution of fisheries to greenhouse gas emissions is addressed and examples of mitigation strategies are given. The role of public policy and institutions in promoting climate change adaptation and mitigation is also explored.
CCAFS Big Facts website
Fisheries and aquaculture:
Evidence of success for fisheries and aquaculture:
FAO. 2012c. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e00.htm Today, the global community faces multiple and interlinked challenges ranging from the impacts of the ongoing financial and economic crisis to greater climate change vulnerabilities and extreme weather events. At the same time, it must also reconcile meeting the pressing food and nutrition needs of a growing population with finite natural resources. This edition of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture shows how these issues affect fisheries and aquaculture sector and how the sector is attempting to address them in a sustainable manner.
Ficke AD, Myrick CA, Hansen LJ. 2007. Potential impacts of global climate change on freshwater fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 17(4):581–613.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11160-007-9059-5 Despite uncertainty in all levels of analysis, recent and long-term changes in our climate point to the distinct possibility that greenhouse gas emissions have altered mean annual temperatures, precipitation and weather patterns. Modeling efforts that use doubled atmospheric CO2 scenarios predict a 1–7°C mean global temperature increase, regional changes in precipitation patterns and storm tracks, and the possibility of “surprises” or sudden irreversible regime shifts. The general effects of climate change on freshwater systems will likely be increased water temperatures, decreased dissolved oxygen levels, and the increased toxicity of pollutants. In lotic systems, altered hydrologic regimes and increased groundwater temperatures could affect the quality of fish habitat. In lentic systems, eutrophication may be exacerbated or offset, and stratification will likely become more pronounced and stronger. This could alter food webs and change habitat availability and quality. Fish physiology is inextricably linked to temperature, and fish have evolved to cope with specific hydrologic regimes and habitat niches. Therefore, their physiology and life histories will be affected by alterations induced by climate change. Fish communities may change as range shifts will likely occur on a species level, not a community level; this will add novel biotic pressures to aquatic communities. Genetic change is also possible and is the only biological option for fish that are unable to migrate or acclimate. Endemic species, species in fragmented habitats, or those in east–west oriented systems will be less able to follow changing thermal isolines over time. Artisanal, commercial, and recreational fisheries worldwide depend upon freshwater fishes. Impacted fisheries may make it difficult for developing countries to meet their food demand, and developed countries may experience economic losses. As it strengthens over time, global climate change will become a more powerful stressor for fish living in natural or artificial systems. Furthermore, human response to climate change (e.g., increased water diversion) will exacerbate its already-detrimental effects. Model predictions indicate that global climate change will continue even if greenhouse gas emissions decrease or cease. Therefore, proactive management strategies such as removing other stressors from natural systems will be necessary to sustain our freshwater fisheries.
Nellemann C, Corcoran E, Duarte CM, Valdés L, De Young C, Fonseca L, Grimsditch G, (Eds). 2009. Blue Carbon. A Rapid Response Assessment. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme; Arendal, Norway: GRID-Arendal.http://www.grida.no/publications/rr/blue-carbon/ A new Rapid Response Assessment report released 14 October 2009 at the Diversitas Conference, Cape Town Conference Centre, South Africa. Compiled by experts at GRID-Arendal and UNEP in collaboration with the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the UNESCO International Oceanographic Commissions and other institutions, the report highlights the critical role of the oceans and ocean ecosystems in maintaining our climate and in assisting policy makers to mainstream an oceans agenda into national and international climate change initiatives.
Bell JD, Johnson JE, Hobday AJ, (Eds.). 2011. Vulnerability of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community.http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/divers15-01/010063492.pdf This book provides a comprehensive climate change vulnerability assessment of tropical Pacific aquaculture and fisheries. There is little doubt that climate impact will increase in the coming years, having profound effects on fishery and aquaculture production. Rapid population growth in the Pacific Island countries demands new sustainable approaches to successfully meet food security demands, capable of responding to the many climate drivers which affect the production of fish and shellfish. Vulnerabilities and adaptation responses need to be identified, and the book brings together contributions from scientists and fisheries managers from 36 institutions around the globe. Not only do the vulnerabilities need to be addressed, but adaptations, policies and investment need to be able to take advantage of potential opportunities as well.
CCAFS. 2013. Big Facts on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).https://ccafs.cgiar.org/bigfacts/# Big Facts is a resource of the most up-to-date and robust facts relevant to the nexus of climate change, agriculture and food security. It is intended to provide a credible and reliable platform for fact checking amid the range of claims that appear in reports, advocacy materials and other sources. Full sources are supplied for all facts and figures and all content has gone through a process of peer review.
Boles E. 2014. Integrated Shrimp Aquaculture with Mangrove Protection in Cà Mau, Vietnam. Tempe, AZ: New Global Citizenhttp://newglobalcitizen.com/impact-and-innovation/snv-integrates-shrimp-aquaculture-mangrove-protection-ca-mau-vietnam#sthash.pTF4ZWPr.dpuf Mangrove forest is the natural habitat and breeding ground of shrimp—providing wild feedstock, organic waste for food and shade, and root structures for shelter. In response to the rising global demand for shrimp over the past three decades, over half of Vietnam’s natural mangrove forest has been cleared to accommodate shrimp aquaculture ponds. Due to rapid expansion and insufficient environmental standards, the deltas of Cà Mau are now pockmarked with failed shrimp ponds, abandoned because of high costs and decreasing returns due to erosion, pollution, and shrimp disease. SNV Netherlands Development Organization and co-implementer IUCN have taken up this challenge with the Mangroves and Markets (MAM) project to integrate ecologically sound shrimp aquaculture with the mangrove environment of Cà Mau—reversing mangrove loss and reducing carbon emissions.
SNV. 2012. Mangroves and Markets: supporting mangrove protection in Ca Mau Province. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: SNV.http://www.snv.org/project/mangroves-and-markets Vietnam has lost half its mangroves over the past 30 years, primarily as a result of the expansion in area for rice production and more recently clearing for shrimp ponds. This has serious consequences: mangroves protect against tidal waves and storm surges; they are vital fish nursery-grounds, provide timber, honey, and other products; and raise land levels by trapping sediment. They also have a high carbon content; the total carbon storage is very high relative to most forest types. Healthy mangroves thus make important contributions to both climate change adaptation and mitigation.
Seafood Watch. 2013. Naturland Standards for Organic Aquaculture: Shrimp. Monterey, CA: Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch.https://www.seafoodwatch.org/-/m/sfw/pdf/eco-certifications/reports/mba-seafoodwatch-naturland-farmed-shrimp-benchmarking_report.pdf?la=en The benchmarking equivalence assessment was undertaken on the basis of a positive application of a realistic worst-case scenario. • “Positive” – Seafood Watch wants to be able to defer to equivalent certification schemes • “Realistic” – we are not actively pursuing the theoretical worst case score. It has to represent reality and realistic aquaculture production. • “Worst-case scenario” – we need to know that the worst-performing farm capable of being certified to any one standard is equivalent to a minimum of a Seafood Watch “Good alternative” or “Yellow” ranking. The final result of the equivalence assessment for Naturland Standards for Organic Aquaculture, assessed for shrimp is a yellow ”Good Alternative” recommendation. Seafood Watch does not consider all certified farms to be at that level, but the standards could allow a farm equivalent to a yellow Seafood Watch recommendation to be certified. This means Seafood Watch can defer to Naturland Shrimp certification as an assurance that certified products meet at least a yellow “Good Alternative” recommendation.
CTI. 2011. Region-wide Early Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation for the Near-shore Marine and Coastal Environment (REAP-CCA). Jakarta, Indonesia: CTI Interim Regional Secretariat.http://www.coraltriangleinitiative.org/sites/default/files/resources/FINAL_CCA%20REAP_17Oct2011_lg_V6.pdf The Coral Triangle encompasses almost six million square kilometers of ocean and coastal waters surrounding Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste (Figure 1). It is considered the global epicenter of marine biodiversity—home to over 500 species of reefbuilding corals and 3,000 species of fish. The cumulative impacts of unplanned coastal development, over-fishing, habitat degradation, and climate change threaten the health and welfare, food security, and livelihoods of over 120 million people that live in coastal zone.
Read T. 2014. Stewarding biodiversity and food security in the Coral Triangle: Achievement, challenges and lessons learned. Jakarta, Indonesia: CTI Interim Regional Secretariat.http://assets.worldwildlife.org/publications/659/files/original/CTSP-LessonsLearned_final__MK_edits__PD_review_2014_Jan_15.pdf?1391724667 The management team of the US Agency for International Development (USAID)- supported Coral Triangle Support Partnership (CTSP) commissioned this report to take a qualitative look at the achievements, challenges, and lessons learned from investment in CTSP. CTSP is part of a broader USAID investment supporting the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF), a six-nation effort to sustain vital marine and coastal resources in the Coral Triangle located in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.
Energy plays a crucial role in every stage of the agri-food system: in the pre-production stage of inputs; in the production of crops, fish, livestock and forestry products; in post-production and post-harvest operations; in food storage and processing; in food transport and distribution; and in food preparation. These systems require two different types of energy: direct energy, which includes electricity, mechanical power, solid, liquid and gaseous fuels; and indirect energy, which refers to the energy required to manufacture inputs such as machinery, farm equipment, fertilizers and pesticides (FAO 2012a). 77
Over recent decades, the increased use of energy inputs has contributed significantly to feeding the world (FAO 2013a) 21 and currently, the food sector accounts for around 30% of the world’s total end-use energy consumption (ibid). It is, however, highly dependent on fossil fuels, which could potentially be a threat to food security (ibid). In addition, it is estimated that two-fifths of the world’s population still depends on unsustainably harvested wood energy for cooking and heating (Bogdanski 2012). 78 Increased food production to meet the needs of a growing population is likely to increase energy use within the sector. This could potentially widen the gap between energy demand and access and it could increase the negative impact which agriculture has on the environment through land-use change and rising emissions. Combined with unsustainable energy use in consumption, these issues present significant challenges for energy management in a CSA context. However, efficient management of energy sources and diversification through the use of sustainable renewable energy can reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy supply and access, and reduce the impact on the environment. Based on this, energy management has three main aims: (i) increasing energy efficiency, (ii) generating a supply of renewable energy from the sector, and (iii) broadening access to modern energy services (FAO 2013a). 21
Contribution to CSA
- Productivity: Agricultural production can be increased by improving energy efficiency and reducing losses; increasing energy diversification through the use of renewable energy sources; and opening up access to energy sources through efficient and affordable small-scale systems.
- Adaptation through short-term risk management: Reducing reliance on fossil energy and associated costs, as well as the adoption of alternative or more sustainable means of usage of biomass (e.g. solid fuels such as wood and briquettes, or liquid biofuels), can result in increased time and income becoming available which can be used to enhance resilience to climate change impacts and reduce the vulnerability of farmers to price shocks and resource shortage. Other adaptation benefits include improved health, rural development, and increased food security.
- Mitigation: Bioenergy, solar energy, and other renewables such as hydro and geothermal energy can replace fossil fuels and other high emissions energy sources (e.g. wood and charcoal), and reduce CO2 emissions, in both the short- and long-term. Energy management can help mitigate climate change by carrying out life-cycle assessments of energy systems, identifying sustainable renewable energy resources, promoting efficient and replicable technologies, and examining policies to look for areas of improvement.
FAO. 2013. Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Module 5: Sound Management of Energy for Climate-smart agriculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pp. 139-165.
This section looks at the relationship between food and energy in a world where the climate is changing and competition for natural resources is increasing. It first discusses the topic of “energy-smart food” in the CSA context, as well as the synergies and trade-offs between energy-smart food and CSA. Furthermore, it presents possible energy solutions for CSA, including technologies for energy-smart food and CSA, as well as policies and institutions dimensions for scaling-up.
Bogdanski A. 2012. Integrated food–energy systems for climate-smart agriculture. Agriculture & Food Security 1:9.
This paper aims to describe the unique role that energy contributes to addressing some of the combined challenges related to food security and climate change. Contrary to the majority of recent literature, this manuscript will look beyond the current discussion on liquid biofuels for transport and their potential impacts on food security. The paper will give an overview of different options that allow for the joint production of food and energy in a climate-smart way, and will explain how such integrated food–energy systems (IFES) can contribute to improved food security, energy access and adaptive capacity to climate change. Drawing from case studies, the author lays out the next steps that are necessary to mainstream successful IFES into common practice, while also discussing current barriers that prevent the upscaling of such diverse and integrated systems.
FAO. 2012. Energy-smart food at FAO: an overview. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
This paper presents FAO’s work on energy in relation to specific components of the agrifood chain. It complements two recent publications, Energy-Smart Food for People and Climate Issues Paper and the policy brief, Making the Case for Energy-Smart Food. These publications presented the findings of a 2011 study commissioned by FAO that examined the linkages between energy and agrifood systems and their implications for food security and climate. The study looked at energy uses along the entire agrifood chain from field to plate and the potential of agrifood systems to produce energy. Findings confirmed that agrifood systems use a large share of the global energy supply, rely heavily on fossil fuels to meet production targets and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. The study concluded that agrifood systems will have to become ‘energy-smart’ to meet future food and energy challenges, and recommended establishing a major long-term multipartner programme on energy-smart food systems based on three pillars (i) improving energy efficiency in agrifood systems, (ii) increasing the use of renewable energy in these systems and (iii) improving access to modern energy services through integrated food and energy production. In response to these recommendations, FAO has launched the multi-partner Energysmart Food for People and Climate (ESF) Programme. This paper illustrates how FAO’s longstanding work in the area of energy and agrifood systems contributes towards the ESF Programme’s objectives.
FAO. 2012a. Energy-Smart Food at FAO: An Overview. Environment and Natural Resources Working Paper no. 53. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an913e/an913e.pdf This paper presents FAO’s work on energy in relation to specific components of the agrifood chain. It complements two recent publications, Energy-Smart Food for People and Climate Issues Paper and the policy brief, Making the Case for Energy-Smart Food. These publications presented the findings of a 2011 study commissioned by FAO that examined the linkages between energy and agrifood systems and their implications for food security and climate. The study looked at energy uses along the entire agrifood chain from field to plate and the potential of agrifood systems to produce energy. Findings confirmed that agrifood systems use a large share of the global energy supply, rely heavily on fossil fuels to meet production targets and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. The study concluded that agrifood systems will have to become ‘energy-smart’ to meet future food and energy challenges, and recommended establishing a major long-term multipartner programme on energy-smart food systems based on three pillars (i) improving energy efficiency in agrifood systems, (ii) increasing the use of renewable energy in these systems and (iii) improving access to modern energy services through integrated food and energy production. In response to these recommendations, FAO has launched the multi-partner Energy-Smart Food for People and Climate (ESF) Programme. This paper illustrates how FAO’s longstanding work in the area of energy and agrifood systems contributes towards the ESF Programme’s objectives.
Bogdanski A. 2012. Integrated food–energy systems for climate-smart agriculture. Agriculture & Food Security 2012:1-9.http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2048-7010-1-9 Food production needs to increase by 70%, mostly through yield increases, to feed the world in 2050. Increases in productivity achieved in the past are attributed in part to the significant use of fossil fuels. Energy use in agriculture is therefore also expected to rise in the future, further contributing to greenhouse emissions. At the same time, more than two-fifths of the world’s population still depends on unsustainably harvested wood energy for cooking and heating. Both types of energy use have detrimental impacts on the climate and natural resources. Continuing on this path is not an option as it will put additional pressure on the already stressed natural resource base and local livelihoods, while climate change is further reducing the resilience of agro-ecosystems and smallholder farmers. Ecosystem approaches that combine both food and energy production, such as agroforestry or integrated crop–livestock–biogas systems, could substantially mitigate these risks while providing both food and energy to rural and urban populations. Information and understanding on how to change course through the implementation of the practices outlined in this paper are urgently needed. Yet the scientific basis of such integrated systems, which is essential to inform decision-makers and to secure policy support, is still relatively scarce. The author therefore argues that new assessment methodologies based on a systems-oriented analysis are needed for analyzing these complex, multidisciplinary and large-scale phenomena.
FAO. 2014a. Indonesia (Case 2): BIRU biogas programme. In: Small-Scale Bioenergy Initiatives in ASEAN +3. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. pp. 66-81.http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/rap/files/meetings/2015/141218_Final_report.pdf
In May 2009, the BIogas RUmah or ‘household biogas’ (BIRU) programme officially started. The Humanist Institute for Development Cooperation (HIVOS) was appointed by the Dutch government as programme manager, with technical assistance from SNV (the Netherlands Development Organisation). EUR6 million was allocated to implement the programme, with the target of installing 10 000 biodigesters by the end of 2013; HIVOS’s latest data (mid-2013) shows however that approximately 11 000 biodigesters have been installed. HIVOS is continuously seeking further expansion of the number of households participating in the initiative. This initiative was intended to create a sustainable domestic biogas market in Indonesia. However, despite its success, financial support is still needed to further develop and maintain programme 67 activities, and HIVOS continues to seek additional funding to extent and expand the initiative. HIVOS data shows that the cost of building a biodigester is US$720. As part of the initiative, farmers receive a partial subsidy (US$220, approximately 30 percent of the total cost) to construct the biodigesters; they pay for the rest by through a credit mechanism. The subsidy is not paid directly to the farmers but to the construction partners who build the biogas system. HIVOS has approached several financial institutions (including local banks) to set up a microcredit mechanism enabling farmers to pay back the biodigester costs in installments over a payback period set to 3.5 years with monthly instalments of IDR144 0004 . In East Java province, where farmers sell their dairy products to cooperatives, each installment is deducted from the monthly payment of the dairy products sold by the farmers. This scheme has been proven to be very successful and East Java is currently one of provinces where the largest number of biodigesters have been installed.
World Bank. 2013. Indonesia: Toward Universal Access to Clean Cooking. Washington, DC: World Bank.https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/16068/792790ESW0P1290ox0377371B00PUBLIC00.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Indonesia's household cooking fuels have undergone a dramatic shift in recent years, owing primarily to the government's highly successful Kerosene-to- Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Conversion Program; yet the impact in poorer rural areas has been limited. Switching to LPG, electricity, and other modern fuels would be the most effective way to achieve clean cooking solutions, but these fuels are expensive, requiring costly stoves and delivery infrastructure that are beyond reach for most rural households. By contrast, many types of biomass can be freely collected from the local environment or purchased for significantly less than other fuels. Thus, large-scale fuel switching in rural areas is unlikely to occur until rural economies become substantially more developed. This means that an estimated 40 percent of households will continue to rely on traditional biomass energy, especially fuel wood, to meet their daily cooking needs for years to come. This report is structured according to the directional organization of the study. Chapter two presents an overview of household cooking fuels in Indonesia, including policy changes and other factors that influence fuel choices. Chapter three examines an array of stove supply side issues, including market and production capacity, popular stove models, limitations of business models, key features of the supply chain, and attitudes toward new stoves. Chapter four identifies gaps in policies and institutional strengthening that future intervention programs will need to fill and reviews lessons from successful programs promoting clean cooking solutions that can be applied to those focused on clean biomass cooking. Finally, chapter five presents the recommended implementation strategy, including an innovative financing approach, and the next steps in helping Indonesia move toward universal access to clean cooking solutions by 2030.
PAC. 2009. Small-Scale Bioenergy Initiatives: Brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; PISCES.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/aj991e/aj991e.pdf This report is based on a series of 15 international case studies conducted between September and November 2008 under a joint initiative of FAO and the PISCES Energy Research Programme Consortium funded by DFID. The case studies focussed on developing an improved understanding of the linkages between Livelihoods and SmallScale Bioenergy Initiatives. The study was developed in consultation with the PISCES Consortium Advisory Group (CAG). This is made up of leading international participants in the field of energy and development, including members from the IEA, UNEP, ENERGIA, DFID and FAO, as well as policymakers and research organisations in the PISCES target countries of India, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. The focus of the study was on the impacts that different types of local level Bioenergy initiatives can have on Rural Livelihoods in different contexts in the developing world. Livelihoods are understood as the enhancement of the full range of natural, financial, human, social and physical capitals on a sustainable ongoing basis.
TechnoServe. 2008. Biodiesel for rural development: lessons from Guatemala on how to increase livelihoods for the poor.http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/docs/statement08/lionel_lopez.pdf This presentation focuses on the use of biodiesel and its impact on rural development, particularly on small farmers in Guatemala. Technoserve is a non-for-profit organization based in Washington that takes action for rural development at the international level, modeling and implementing sustainable solutions for small-scale producers. The organization focuses on entrepreneurship, making its primary mission the implementation of sustainable business models based on an integrated approach and taking into account environmental and social considerations.
Kant P, Wu S. 2011. The Extraordinary Collapse of Jatropa as a Global Biofuel. Environmental Science & Technology 45(17):7114-7115.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es201943v Blending of fossil diesel with biodiesel is an important climate change mitigation strategy across the world. In 2003 the Planning Commission of India decided to introduce mandatory blending over increasingly larger parts of the country and reach countrywide 30% blending status by the year 2020 and opted for nonedible oilseed species of Jatropha curcus raised over lands unsuited to agriculture as it was considered to be high in oil content, early yielding, nonbrowsable and requiring little irrigation and even less management. In a massive planting program of unprecedented scale millions of marginal farmers and landless people were encouraged to plant Jatropha across India through attractive schemes. But the results are anything but encouraging. In India the provisions of mandatory blending could not be enforced as seed production fell far short of the expectation and a recent study has reported discontinuance by 85% of the Jatropha farmers.
Barbee M. 2012. Creating a Biodiesel Industry to Impact the Rural Poor in Guatemala. The Mortenson Center in Engineering for Developing Communities, University of Colorado.https://mcedc.colorado.edu/sites/default/files/Jatropha%20Biofuels%20Case%20Study%20May%202012.pdf The biodiesel market is growing worldwide in order to augment the fossil hydrocarbon sources of fuel for the planet’s diverse energy services. Investors and suppliers have been looking for high-yielding, hardy, and energy-dense plant sources of oil for decades in order to compete with the share that diesel has in global markets. Jatropha Curcas, with its rich oil-bearing seed and reputedly high yields in poor soil has seen heavy investment in the last decade. The seeds of most varieties contain 35-45 % oil and the other portions of the seeds are rich in nutrients, which encourage the incorporation of the seed waste in value-added products. The main viable product from the seed cake waste is a simple organic fertilizer that can be applied on small or large-holder plots for improving yields of commercial or edible crops. The oil and seed cake contain curcin, which, in addition to other compounds, is composed of different types of phorbol esters—one of which is PMA, the most potent natural tumor-promoter known. There are numerous risks associated with the processing and application of raw seed cake fertilizer and this paper is intended to function as a resource for understanding the risks and to provide information and suggestions for mitigating the negative consequences. The background on Jatropha will be given, its value as a fertilizer, a description of the toxicity, the application of a risk assessment framework to a case in Guatemala, and finally, risk management recommendations for individuals, organizations, and private companies that are seeking to promote the cultivation of toxic strains of Jatropha curcas and the use of its waste streams.
Pearce F. 2013. Jatropha: it boomed, it busted, and now it’s back. CGIAR Research Program on Water, Lad and Ecosystems.https://wle.cgiar.org/thrive/2013/04/10/jatropha-it-boomed-it-busted-and-now-its-back This blog discusses the resurgence of the controversial biofuel Jatropha.
Shah T. 2015. Why India’s leap into the solar-powered age must take along farmers. CCAFS Blog. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).https://ccafs.cgiar.org/blog/why-india%E2%80%99s-leap-solar-powered-age-must-take-along-farmers This CCAFS blog posts explains how improvements in harnessing solar energy can help farmers become active players in the renewable energy market, boosting climate-smart agriculture.
Shah T, Durga N, Verma S. 2015. Harvesting solar riches. Financial Express April 01, 2015.http://www.financialexpress.com/article/fe-columnist/harvesting-solar-riches/59262/ This Financial Express article covers how the farm sector can profit from generating solar power, by either using it to power irrigation or selling the surplus.
Cherian S. 2015. A Gujarat farmer who supplies power to grid. Business Standard June 13, 2015.http://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/a-gujarat-farmer-who-supplies-power-to-grid-115061200812_1.html This Business Standard article tells the story of an Indian farmer who successful uses solar energy to power the pump for his irrigation, while selling excess power to the utility grid.
IWMI. 2015a. Payday for India’s first ever “sunshine farmer”.http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/2015/06/payday-for-indias-first-ever-sunshine-farmer/ This IMWI news story explains how a smallholder farmer in India is capable of harvesting sunshine to conserve water and boost income.