Different landscapes require different approaches, depending on the state and nature of the resources, land use dynamics, and social and economic contexts. Eight case studies were presented and analysed in order to illustrate some aspects of a holistic landscape approach in different contexts (FAO 2103a). 1 The case studies included:
- Pastoralism in Laikipia, Kenya (see also Case study: Pastoralism in Laikipia, Kenya).
- Preserving the Kihamba agro-forestry system, Mt. Kilimanjaro.
- Implementation of an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture in Estero Real, Nicaragua.
- Preserving forest resources and improving livelihoods through communal tenure rights in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala.
- Addressing forest fires by improving livelihoods in the forest-agriculture interface in Syria.
- Ecosystem services of peatlands of the Ruoergai Plateau.
- Assessing ecosystem services at a territorial scale – options for policy making, planning, and monitoring in the Kagera river basin.
- Planning and management for the hydrological balance of the South American continent – the role of the tropical Andes.
Five important messages emerged from these studies:
- Managing agriculture, forestry and fisheries at a landscape scale is key to achieving sustainable development.
- Appropriate land-use planning and decision making at the landscape level should be based on a participatory, consensus-based and people-centred approach.
- Production sectors are often managed in isolation from each other and this can be counterproductive. Coordination at the landscape level facilitates the integrated management of production systems and the natural resources that underpin ecosystem services needed for all sectors. Climate-smart agriculture (CSA), which follows a landscape approach, can address the challenges involved in intersectoral natural resources management.
- Measuring and monitoring the multiple benefits of climate-smart landscapes is essential for tracking the impact of intersectoral efforts.
- Scaling up CSA and moving from pilot projects to large-scale programme and policies by applying a landscape approach requires a diverse range of strategies and practices. It is important to create awareness and partnerships between sectors, mainstream CSA into policies and build capacities at all levels. These activities must be supported by an enabling policy and market environment.
FAO. 2013a. Climate-Smart Agriculture: Sourcebook. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3325e.pdf Between now and 2050, the world’s population will increase by one-third. Most of these additional 2 billion people will live in developing countries. At the same time, more people will be living in cities. If current income and consumption growth trends continue, FAO estimates that agricultural production will have to increase by 60 percent by 2050 to satisfy the expected demands for food and feed. Agriculture must therefore transform itself if it is to feed a growing global population and provide the basis for economic growth and poverty reduction. Climate change will make this task more difficult under a business-as-usual scenario, due to adverse impacts on agriculture, requiring spiralling adaptation and related costs.