Disease-resistant and early maturing chickpeas boost production in Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAndhra Pradesh, India

Background 1

South and Southeast Asia account for about 84% of the global chickpea growing area. The crop is mainly rainfed and is grown in the post-rainy season when soil moisture is receding. It often experiences terminal drought and heat stress. Because of the risk of extreme drought and high temperatures during pod filling in the post-rainy season, the growing season is as short as 90–120 days in two thirds of chickpea growing areas. ICRISAT’s first extra-short duration Kabuli cultivar, ICCV 2, matures in only 85–90 days and demonstrates fusarium wilt resistance and heat tolerance. Subsequently, several early-maturing, high-yielding cultivars have been developed, including two new Kabuli types and four Desi types.

Relationship to CSA

Avoiding terminal drought and heat stress by growing shorter-term chickpea varieties provides a substantial contribution to short-term adaptation through climate risk management and avoidance. In addition, the resistance to Fusarium Wilt provides additional adaptation gains. Fusarium wilt infection is favoured by high temperatures and warm moist soils, conditions which climate change projections suggest are likely to become more prevalent in Southeast Asia.

Impacts and lessons learned

The adoption of early-maturing chickpea cultivars has brought about a chickpea revolution in the Andhra Pradesh State in India. Chickpea production increased nine-fold, from 95,000 to 884,000 tonnes between 2000–2009. This is a result of a five-fold increase in area (102,000 to 602,000 ha) combined with a 2.4-fold increase in yield levels (583 to 1,407 kg ha-1). Over 80% of the chickpea area in Andhra Pradesh is now cultivated using the improved short-duration cultivars which were developed by ICRISAT and the Indian national agricultural research system. Andhra Pradesh was once considered to be a low yielding state for chickpea because of its warm, short-season environment, but it now has the highest yield levels in India.


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    ICRISAT. 2012. The Jewels of ICRISAT. Telangana, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).


    The book takes up an idea suggested by our Governing Board to highlight the ‘jewels’ of ICRISAT – the 16 breakthroughs and innovations described in this publication. These stories revolve around and cut across our four research programs: resilient dryland systems; markets, institutions and policies; grain legumes; and dryland cereals. This publication aims primarily to help the reader understand ICRISAT’s core science and our impact in overcoming the daunting challenges of the dryland tropics. Likewise it illustrates the ways in which science can be mobilized to help achieve six critical development outcomes needed to bring about inclusive marketoriented development: food sufficiency, intensification, diversification, resilience, health and nutrition, and the empowerment of women.

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CCAFS Climate-Smart Agriculture 101

The basics

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrative approach to address these interlinked challenges of food security and climate change, that explicitly aims for three objectives:

A. Sustainably increasing agricultural productivity, to support equitable increases in farm incomes, food security and development;

B. Adapting and building resilience of agricultural and food security systems to climate change at multiple levels; and

C. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture (including crops, livestock and fisheries).

Entry points

Agriculture affects and is affected by climate change in a wide range of ways and there are numerous entry points for initiating CSA programmes or enhancing existing activities. Productivity, mitigation and adaptation actions can take place at different technological, organizational, institutional and political levels. To help you navigate these myriad entry points we have grouped them under three Thematic Areas: (i) CSA practices, (ii) CSA systems approaches, and (iii) Enabling environments for CSA. Each entry point is then described and analysed in terms of productivity, adoption and mitigation potential and is illustrated with cases studies, references and internet links for further information.

Develop a CSA plan

Planning for, implementing and monitoring CSA projects and programmes evolves around issues of understanding the context including identification of major problems/barriers and opportunities related to the focus of the programme; developing and prioritizing solutions and designing plans; implementation; and monitoring and evaluation. Most major development agencies have their own framework for project and programme formulation and management but CCAFS has developed a specific approach for planning, implementing and assessing CSA projects and programme called CSA plan. CSA plan was developed to provide a guide for operationalizing CSA planning, implementation and monitoring at scale. CSA plan consist of four major components: (1) Situation analysis; (2) Targeting and prioritizing; (3) Program support; and (4) Monitoring. evaluation and learning.


To meet the objectives of CSA, such as agricultural development, food security and climate change adaptation and mitigation, a number of potential funding sources are available. For instance, climate finance sources may be used to leverage agriculture finance and mainstream climate change into agricultural investments. This section offers an overview of potential sources of funding for activities in climate-smart agriculture (CSA) at national, regional and international levels and for a number of different potential ‘clients’ including governments, civil society, development organizations and others. Additionally, it includes options to search among a range of funding opportunities according to CSA focus area, sector and financing instrument.

Resource library

CSA Guide provides a short and concise introduction and overview of the multifaceted aspects of climate-smart agriculture. At the same time it offers links to references and key resources that allows for further investigations and understanding of specific topics of interest. In the resource library we have gathered all the references, key resources, terms and questions in one place for a quick overview and easy access that can be used as a part of or independently of the other sections of the website. The resource library is divided into six sections; (1) References – list all publications, links and blogs referred to on the website; (2) Tools – list all the CSA tools presented on the website; (3) Key terms – explains the most important and frequently used terms related to CSA; (4) Frequently asked questions (FAQ) – provides a rapid overview of the most common questions asked on climate-smart agriculture; (5) About – where you can find out more about the purpose and structure of, as well as on the organizations and authors behind the website; (6) Contact.

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