BIRU (BIogas RUmah) programmeIndonesia

Background 1 2

Biogas technology was introduced to Indonesia in the 1970s when the cost of constructing a biogas system was significantly higher than it is today. Other major barriers to development included the heavy subsidies which fossil fuels received from the Government and the relatively cheap and available wood-based fuels.

Over the last decade, with growing interest in renewable energy, biogas technology has again started to receive attention in Indonesia. In 2008, the Indonesian government proposed a study to determine the potential demand for biogas of one million small domestic biogas plants. The study, funded by the Dutch government, indicated that farmers on Java island were a suitable target to kickstart the programme since most stabled their cattle, making the collection of animal waste for use as inputs relatively easy.

In May 2009, the BIogas RUmah, or ‘household biogas’ (BIRU) programme, started. The Humanist Institute for Development Cooperation (HIVOS) was appointed by the Dutch government as programme manager, with technical assistance from the Netherlands Development Organization (SNV). EUR6 million was allocated to implement the programme, with the target of installing 10,000 bio-digesters by the end of 2013. HIVOS’s latest data (mid-2013) shows that approximately 11,000 bio-digesters have been installed with further expansion of the number of participating households anticipated.

Relationship to CSA

The utilization of animal wastes for bioenergy lessens the dependence on fossil fuels, which can help mitigate climate change. In addition, the by-products of household biogas act as organic fertilizers, benefiting agricultural production. It also helps rural communities improve their access to energy for cooking and electricity, reduces negative health impacts, and enhances livelihoods at the same time.

Impacts and lessons learned

By 2013, the programme had already exceeded its initial target of installing 10,000 bio-digesters. However, getting farmers involved was not easy, due to their negative experience with the previous government biogas programme. Extensive and intensive community coaching was part of the programme and was necessary to break down barriers and retrieve farmers’ trust. The BIRU programme was therefore designed not only to enhance demand and supply, but also to create a complete supporting system. The use of biogas for cooking and of bio-slurry as fertilizer were also important benefits.


  • 1

    FAO. 2014a. Indonesia (Case 2): BIRU biogas programme. In: Small-Scale Bioenergy Initiatives in ASEAN +3. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. pp. 66-81.

    In May 2009, the BIogas RUmah or ‘household biogas’ (BIRU) programme officially started. The Humanist Institute for Development Cooperation (HIVOS) was appointed by the Dutch government as programme manager, with technical assistance from SNV (the Netherlands Development Organisation). EUR6 million was allocated to implement the programme, with the target of installing 10 000 biodigesters by the end of 2013; HIVOS’s latest data (mid-2013) shows however that approximately 11 000 biodigesters have been installed. HIVOS is continuously seeking further expansion of the number of households participating in the initiative. This initiative was intended to create a sustainable domestic biogas market in Indonesia. However, despite its success, financial support is still needed to further develop and maintain programme 67 activities, and HIVOS continues to seek additional funding to extent and expand the initiative. HIVOS data shows that the cost of building a biodigester is US$720. As part of the initiative, farmers receive a partial subsidy (US$220, approximately 30 percent of the total cost) to construct the biodigesters; they pay for the rest by through a credit mechanism. The subsidy is not paid directly to the farmers but to the construction partners who build the biogas system. HIVOS has approached several financial institutions (including local banks) to set up a microcredit mechanism enabling farmers to pay back the biodigester costs in installments over a payback period set to 3.5 years with monthly instalments of IDR144 0004 . In East Java province, where farmers sell their dairy products to cooperatives, each installment is deducted from the monthly payment of the dairy products sold by the farmers. This scheme has been proven to be very successful and East Java is currently one of provinces where the largest number of biodigesters have been installed.

  • 2

    World Bank. 2013. Indonesia: Toward Universal Access to Clean Cooking. Washington, DC: World Bank. Indonesia's household cooking fuels have undergone a dramatic shift in recent years, owing primarily to the government's highly successful Kerosene-to- Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Conversion Program; yet the impact in poorer rural areas has been limited. Switching to LPG, electricity, and other modern fuels would be the most effective way to achieve clean cooking solutions, but these fuels are expensive, requiring costly stoves and delivery infrastructure that are beyond reach for most rural households. By contrast, many types of biomass can be freely collected from the local environment or purchased for significantly less than other fuels. Thus, large-scale fuel switching in rural areas is unlikely to occur until rural economies become substantially more developed. This means that an estimated 40 percent of households will continue to rely on traditional biomass energy, especially fuel wood, to meet their daily cooking needs for years to come. This report is structured according to the directional organization of the study. Chapter two presents an overview of household cooking fuels in Indonesia, including policy changes and other factors that influence fuel choices. Chapter three examines an array of stove supply side issues, including market and production capacity, popular stove models, limitations of business models, key features of the supply chain, and attitudes toward new stoves. Chapter four identifies gaps in policies and institutional strengthening that future intervention programs will need to fill and reviews lessons from successful programs promoting clean cooking solutions that can be applied to those focused on clean biomass cooking. Finally, chapter five presents the recommended implementation strategy, including an innovative financing approach, and the next steps in helping Indonesia move toward universal access to clean cooking solutions by 2030.

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CCAFS Climate-Smart Agriculture 101

The basics

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrative approach to address these interlinked challenges of food security and climate change, that explicitly aims for three objectives:

A. Sustainably increasing agricultural productivity, to support equitable increases in farm incomes, food security and development;

B. Adapting and building resilience of agricultural and food security systems to climate change at multiple levels; and

C. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture (including crops, livestock and fisheries).

Entry points

Agriculture affects and is affected by climate change in a wide range of ways and there are numerous entry points for initiating CSA programmes or enhancing existing activities. Productivity, mitigation and adaptation actions can take place at different technological, organizational, institutional and political levels. To help you navigate these myriad entry points we have grouped them under three Thematic Areas: (i) CSA practices, (ii) CSA systems approaches, and (iii) Enabling environments for CSA. Each entry point is then described and analysed in terms of productivity, adoption and mitigation potential and is illustrated with cases studies, references and internet links for further information.

Develop a CSA plan

Planning for, implementing and monitoring CSA projects and programmes evolves around issues of understanding the context including identification of major problems/barriers and opportunities related to the focus of the programme; developing and prioritizing solutions and designing plans; implementation; and monitoring and evaluation. Most major development agencies have their own framework for project and programme formulation and management but CCAFS has developed a specific approach for planning, implementing and assessing CSA projects and programme called CSA plan. CSA plan was developed to provide a guide for operationalizing CSA planning, implementation and monitoring at scale. CSA plan consist of four major components: (1) Situation analysis; (2) Targeting and prioritizing; (3) Program support; and (4) Monitoring. evaluation and learning.


To meet the objectives of CSA, such as agricultural development, food security and climate change adaptation and mitigation, a number of potential funding sources are available. For instance, climate finance sources may be used to leverage agriculture finance and mainstream climate change into agricultural investments. This section offers an overview of potential sources of funding for activities in climate-smart agriculture (CSA) at national, regional and international levels and for a number of different potential ‘clients’ including governments, civil society, development organizations and others. Additionally, it includes options to search among a range of funding opportunities according to CSA focus area, sector and financing instrument.

Resource library

CSA Guide provides a short and concise introduction and overview of the multifaceted aspects of climate-smart agriculture. At the same time it offers links to references and key resources that allows for further investigations and understanding of specific topics of interest. In the resource library we have gathered all the references, key resources, terms and questions in one place for a quick overview and easy access that can be used as a part of or independently of the other sections of the website. The resource library is divided into six sections; (1) References – list all publications, links and blogs referred to on the website; (2) Tools – list all the CSA tools presented on the website; (3) Key terms – explains the most important and frequently used terms related to CSA; (4) Frequently asked questions (FAQ) – provides a rapid overview of the most common questions asked on climate-smart agriculture; (5) About – where you can find out more about the purpose and structure of, as well as on the organizations and authors behind the website; (6) Contact.

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